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Chief Pathkiller
Birth: 1742, USA
Death: Jan., 1827, USA

Chief of Turkey Town in Alabama, largest town of the Cherokee Nation USA Colonel in the War Against the Creeks 1813-1814. Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation, 1808-1810, 1811/1817-1827


Birth: 1595
Death: Mar. 21, 1617

Native American Colonial Figure. She was most likely born in Werawocomoco (what is now Wicomico, Gloucester County, Virginia) on the north side of the Pamaunkee (York) River, about 1595-96, a daughter of the Chief over some forty Algonkuin Indian villages that were spread about the shores of the rivers now called the James and the York, which flow into Chesapeake Bay. Her father called Powhatan after his chief village named her Meto-aka and later "Pocahontas", meaning "Playful little Girl".

Her true name, Mato-aka, was only used within her tribe. She likely saw white men for the first time in May 1607 when Englishmen landed at Jamestown. The one she found most likable was Captain John Smith.

The first meeting of Pocahontas and John Smith has become a legendary, romanticized story, but the two did soon become friends after the meeting. Relations with the Indians continued to be generally friendly for the next year, and she was a frequent visitor to Jamestown.

She delivered messages from her father and accompanied Indians bringing food and furs to trade for hatchets and trinkets. Pocahontas apparently married an Indian "pryvate Captayne" named Kocoum in 1610.

She lived in Potomac country among Indians, but her relationship with the Englishmen was not over. When an energetic and resourceful member of the Jamestown settlement, Captain Samuel Argall, learned where she was, he devised a plan to kidnap her and hold her for ransom.

With the help of Japazaws, lesser chief of the Patowomeck Indians, Argall lured Pocahontas onto his ship. When told she would not be allowed to leave, she "began to be exceeding pensive and discontented," but she eventually became calmer and even accustomed to her captivity. Argall sent word to Powhatan that he would return his beloved daughter only when the chief had returned to him the English prisoners he held, the arms and tolls that the Indians had stolen, and also some corn.

After some time Powhatan sent part of the ransom and asked that they treat his daughter well. Argall returned to Jamestown in April 1613 with Pocahontas. She eventually moved to a new settlement, Henrico, which was under the leadership of Sir Thomas Dale. It was here that she began her education in the Christian Faith, and that she met a successful tobacco planter named John Rolfe in July 1613.

She was allowed relative freedom within the settlement, and she began to enjoy her role in the relations between the colony and her people. After almost a year of captivity, Dale brought 150 armed men and Pocahontas into Powhatan's territory to obtain her entire ransom. Attacked by the Indians, the Englishmen burned many houses, destroyed villages, and killed several Indian men.

Pocahontas was finally sent ashore where she was reunited with two of her brothers, whom she told that she was treated well and that she was in love with the Englishman John Rolfe and wanted to marry him. Powhatan gave his consent to this, and the Englishmen departed, delighted at the prospect of the "peace-making" marriage, although they didn't receive the full ransom.

Sir Thomas Dale made an important voyage back to London in the spring of 1616. His purpose was to seek further financial support for the Virginia Company and, to insure spectacular publicity; he brought with him about a dozen Algonquian Indians, including Pocahontas. Her husband and their young son, Thomas, accompanied her.

The arrival of Pocahontas in London was well publicized. She was presented to King James I, the royal family, and the rest of the best of London society. Also in London at this time was Captain John Smith, the old friend she had not seen for eight years and whom she believed was dead.

After seven months Rolfe decided to return his family to Virginia, In March 1617 they set sail. It was soon apparent, however, that Pocahontas would not survive the voyage home. She was deathly ill from pneumonia or possibly tuberculosis. She was taken ashore, and, as she lay dying, she comforted her husband, saying, "All must die. Tis enough that the child liveth." She was buried in a churchyard in Gravesend, England. She was 22 years old. (bio by: K M)


Chief Pontiac
Birth: 1720
Death: 1769

Chief of the Ottawa Indians. In 1763 he led the "Pontiac Conspiracy," it was an uprising against the British from the Great Lakes Region, to New York and then to Pennsylvania. He hoped to receive help from French troops, but none came. His plan was to wipe out a British settlement in the Appalachian Mountains, he nearly succeeded, but after conquering Detroit he made peace in 1765.
Cause of death: Assassinated in Cahokia, Illinois


Chief Poundmaker
Birth: unknown
Death: unknown

Originally buried at Blackfoot Crossing, Alberta July 4, 1886. Remains of Chief Poundmaker were transferred to Poundmaker Indian Reserve and reinterred in 1967


Birth: 1550
Death: 1618

Father of Pocahontas


Ezekiel Proctor
Birth: Jul. 4, 1831
Georgia, USA
Death: Feb. 23, 1907
Oklahoma, USA

Native American Figure. Only Native American in US history to have a one man treaty with the US Government. He lived up to the treaty and became a model citizen, becoming a Sheriff and Senator of Going Snake District, Indian Territory, Cherokke Nation. There are several books written about him.


Birth: unknown
Death: Dec. 24, 1824

Choctaw Chief.


Birth: unknown
Death: Feb. 1, 1839

Wife of Cherokee Chief John Ross. She died in Little Rock while on the Trail of Tears.


Chief Rain in the Face
Birth: 1835, USA
Death: Sep. 14, 1905
Sioux County, North Dakota, USA

Native American leader. Rain in the Face (Iromagaja) was so named because at age ten, he and fellow Sioux boys had encountered a group of Cheyenne boys. Rain in the Face got into a fight with one of them, who was older than he, and his face was all spattered with blood, as if rain had struck him in the face.

Rain in the Face became a warrior at a young age, having fought in a December, 1866 battle against Captain William Fetterman's troops at Fort Phil Kearny, Wyoming. This battle was one of the Sioux victories in Red Cloud's War to gain back control of the land along the Bozeman Trail in Wyoming and Montana.

Two years later, Rain in the Face was injured in a raid on Fort Totten in North Dakota. He also joined several war parties and fought against the Crow, Mandan, Gros Ventre, and Pawnee, trying to gain respect as a warrior.

In 1873, Rain in the Face was involved in a skirmish that led to a great controversy. That summer General George Armstrong Custer led troops from his Seventh cavalry to the Yellowstone River area to serve as military escort for surveyors of the Northern Pacific railroad. A band of Indians attacked them at the mouth of the Tongue river. The same band of Indians attacked them again near the mouth of the Big Horn.

During this second skirmish, four men were killed. During the first skirmish, one soldier was wounded, but two civilians lagging behind the soldiers were killed. A year later, a scout took word to Custer at Fort Abraham Lincoln, near Bismarck, North Dakota, that Rain in the Face was boasting that he had killed the two men.

Custer sent out his brother, Captain Tom Custer, and Captain Yates, to the Standing Rock Agency to capture Rain in the Face. Accompanied by 100 men, Captain Custer arrested Rain in the Face and returned him to Fort Abraham Lincoln, where Rain in the Face confessed to the murders. He was then imprisoned until a sympathetic guard allowed his escape.

Several years later Rain in the Face was arraigned in a federal court and charged with the murder of the two men. The defense attorney successfully argued that the men had been killed as an act of battle, and that it was therefore not murder. The judge agreed, and the case was dismissed. It was later indicated that Rain in the Face presumed he was in jail because of killing a lone soldier.

In 1876, Rain in the Face was a leading warrior in the defeat of Custer at the Battle of the Little Bighorn in southern Montana. Publicity immediately following the battle accused the chief of having completed his revenge against Tom Custer by taking his heart. Reports of the condition of Tom Custer's body were consistent. Although mutilated, the chest cavity was not opened. Some supporters who did not believe Rain in the Face was guilty of such a mutilation even denied that he had been a part of the battle. As one writer would relate of Rain-in-the-Face's confession in an interview, another would write that he denied it.

The historical record seems to indicate that Rain in the Face was involved in the Custer battle, but that there is no evidence supporting the accusations that he removed Tom Custer's heart. Rain in the Face was among the warriors who accompanied Sitting Bull to Canada. In the winter of 1880 to 1881, he surrendered with others at Fort Keogh, Montana and lived the remainder of his life on the Standing Rock Reservation in North Dakota. He died there on September 14, 1905, and was buried near Aberdeen, South Dakota.

Rain-in-the-Face supposedly stated, shortly before his death that "I have lived peaceably ever since we came upon the reservation. No one can say that Rain in the Face has broken the rules of the Great Father. I fought for my people and my country. When we were conquered I remained silent, as a warrior should. Rain in the Face was killed when he put down his weapons before the Great Father. His spirit was gone then; only this poor body lived on, but now it is almost ready to lie down for the last time. Ho, hechetu! [It is well.]" Whether or not Rain-in-the-Face actually spoke those words, they eloquently serve to summarize his later years. (bio by: Mongoose)


Chief Red Cloud (Makhpiya-Luta)
Birth: 1822
Logan County, USA
Death: 1909
Pine Ridge, Shannon County, South Dakota, USA

Red Cloud, chief of the Oglala Lakota, for years frustrated efforts of the United States government to open up the West. From 1859 on he and his warriors, living near Fort Laramie, Wyoming attacked whites encroaching on Indian Territory along the North Platte River.

By 1865 he was effectively discouraging white intrusion by way of the Bozeman trail. Red Cloud led the 1866 massacre of 80 troops from Fort Kearney, one of the posts built to protect the trail, an event that led to the abandonment of the trail by the whites in 1868.

A peace treaty, which Red Cloud signed, seems to have been a turning point for the war chief. After visiting Washington, D.C., he agreed to settle down as a reservation chief.

According to Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse, he sold out to the whites, permitting corrupt and inadequate conditions on Sioux reservations. He lost his status as head chief in 1881. After the Wounded Knee massacre (1890) he lived quietly on Pine Ridge Reservation.


Red Jacket
Original name: Sagoyewatha
Birth: 1752
Death: Jan. 20, 1830

Seneca Indian Chief. A persuasive orator who defended other Iroquois brothers in court, he was a a peace-loving man who advocated peace between the United States and the Indian Nations.

He was awarded a silver medal by George Washington. In the war of 1812 he joined and fought for the United States Army. In later life he began to express concerns about the future of his people, and began rejecting schools and churches and other things associated with civilization.


Red Wing
Birth: 1750
Death: 1825

Second of four chiefs to the Khemnichan Band of the Mdewakanton Sioux Indians. During the War of 1812 he fought for the British, but later became friends with the Americans.


John Ridge
Birth: 1802
Rome, Floyd County, Georgia, USA
Death: Jun. 22, 1839, USA

Native American. His Cherokee name was Skah-tle-loh-skee. Cherokee Leader assassinated in 1839 by pro-Ross Cherokees for his signing of the Treaty of New Echota which led to the removal of the Cherokees on "The Trail of Tears."

John Ridge was educated in Corwall, CT; he lent his expertise in English to the Creeks as secretary and wrote talks for Chief Opothle Yoholo. He was a representative for the Cherokee interests in Washington, D.C. (bio by: Alice Huitt Preston)


John Ross
Birth: Oct. 3, 1790
Turkeytown, Etowah County, Alabama, USA
Death: Aug. 1, 1866
Washington City, District of Columbia, District Of Columbia, USA

Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation from 1828-1866. Leader of his people for nearly forty years. During the forced relocation of the Cherokee over what was to become known as the "Trail of Tears" (1838-39).

He even served as Principal Chief during the turbulent years of the War Between the States 1861-65, and died conducting tribal business in Washington City.


Birth: 1787
Death: Dec. 20, 1812

Native American Explorer. She was born a Shoshone around the year 1788 in their Rocky Mountain homeland which today is Idaho.

Kidnapped by a Kidatsa Indian war party in 1800 at the age of twelve and sold to Toussaint Charbonneau, a French-Canadian fur trader who claimed her as his wife.

In 1804, The Lewis and Clark Expedition was in full swing and had constructed a Fort which they named Mandan near what today is the city of Bismark, North Dakota. While wintering and waiting to proceed, they hired the couple as guides and interpreters for this journey from the Northern Plains to the Pacific.

While waiting for Spring, Sacagawea gave birth to her son Jean-Baptiste Charbonneau. He soon became America's youngest explorer. She was the only woman to accompany the 33 members of the party to the Pacific Ocean and return.

With the baby strapped to her back she became incredibly valuable to the group. The Indians along the route took the expedition as peaceful upon seeing mother with child. With her help, they were able to purchase horses needed to cross the Continental Divide.

Her duties also consisted of digging for roots, picking berries and collecting edible plants all of which were eaten or used as medicine by the group.

Many times she and her baby nearly lost their lives. On one occasion, the boat she was riding in capsized after being hit by high winds.

On November 24, 1805, the expedition reached the spot where the Columbia River emptied into the Pacific. They settled here for the winter in an area which today is Astoria, Oregon.

During the expedition's return journey, they passed through the homeland of the Shoshone. Sacagawea proved a valuable guide. She remembered trails from her childhood.

The group returned to Fort Mandan marking the end of the trip for Sacagawea, Charbonneau and their boy, Jean Baptiste. When the trip was over, she received nothing but Charbonneau was given $500. and 320 acres of land.

Six years after the expedition, Sacagawea gave birth to a daughter, Lisette. Charbonneau disappeared during a trapping trip and was never heard from again.

There are two versions of the demise of Sacagawea. At the time of her death, Sacagawea was with her husband at Fort Manuel, a trading post in what is present-day South Dakota purported to have been stricken with a white man's disease. Her age was 24.

Another version with credence indicates she died at the Wind River Indian Reservation (Wyoming) on November 1, 1877 at the ripe old age of 100.

A known fact of record states that eight months after her death, Captain Clark legally adopted Sacagawea's two children, Jean Baptiste and Lisette. Baptiste was educated by Clark in St. Louis and then, at age 18 was sent to Europe.

The fortunes of Lisette are not known but it is thought she may have never survived past infancy. Sacagawea was honored in the 2000 issue of the $l coin with the contrived image of her carrying the infant on her back.


Chief Satanta
Original name: White Bear Satanta
Birth: unknown
Death: unknown

Great War Chief of The Kiowas. (Read more about Satanta)


Chief Seattle
Original name: Noah Sealth Seattle
Birth: 1786
Death: Jun. 7, 1866

Influential Native American negotiator.


Sitting Bull
Birth: unknown
Death: Dec. 15, 1890
Cause of death: killed by tribal police

Sioux Indian Leader. His parents named him "Slow" because they did not see anything remarkable about him.

When he was 14, he was considered very young to join a war party (1845). However, he was very anxious for a chance to prove himself. As they rest of his party waited for the enemy to approach nearer, he quickly charged towards an enemy on his pony, with the others changing strategy and following his lead. The enemy warriors were so shocked at the boldness of the attack that they retreated. Because his father was so proud of his son's early victory, he gave the name Sitting Bull to his son that the Buffalo God had given him.

In 1856 Sitting Bull killed the chief of the Crows in combat and became the chief of the Strong Hearts warrior society. He played an increasing role in the ongoing conflict with Whites that escalated in the 1850s and 1860s.

In 1864 he participated in the Battle of Killdeer Mountains and the Battle of the Badland; in 1865 he fought United States troops in the Battle of Powder River. The Indians thought of the Buffalo as a headstrong, stubborn creature that was afraid of nothing - a creature that has great endurance, courage and strength. These qualities were fighting qualities that people ascribed to Sitting Bull.

When the Hunkpapa Sioux tribe began losing respect and faith in the Chiefs of their tribe, Four Horns decided it was time that a new chief was to be chosen. In 1867 Sitting Bull was inaugurated as head chief of the Teton Sioux with the belief that he would restore the honor of and rebuild the people's respect.

Well known as an able buffalo hunter and a brave warrior who led charges against enemies, he was a popular figure within the camp. He also had a reputation as a peacemaker, settling disputes among his people. Sitting Bull felt for the poor and weak people of his tribe and showed his compassion by sharing food and even giving away his horses.

He was also a sociable man who always had a good story or joke ready for those who would listen. Being extremely religious, it was said that Sitting Bull received everything he prayed for, and his prophecy gift was uncanny.

In 1868 he showed his leadership by negotiating the Treaty of Laramie with Father Pierre Jeane DeSmet. Violations of that treaty, and increasing White encroachment into Indian lands prompted Sitting Bull to assemble a force of Plain Indians in 1876 and prepare for war against the United States Army.

Prior to the most significant fighting, he performed the outlawed "Sun Dance" ritual and prophesied the subsequent victory over General George Cook in the Battle of the Rosebud and the defeat of General George Custer in the Battle of Little Bighorn.

Meeting with Colonel Nelson Miles after the battles, he took his people to Canada in 1877 under an agreement with the United States government in 1877. Some Americans objected to his exile and called for his extradition. In 1878 he again met with a United States Commission but refused to leave Canada.

By 1881, isolated from his people in the United States and receiving no humanitarian aid from the Canadian government, he returned with his people to the United States and surrendered at Fort Buford.

Between the years of 1881 to 1883, he was held in confinement at Fort Randall. During his confinement he made a deal with William "Buffalo Bill" Cody to perform in Cody's traveling "Wild West Show".

After touring from 1883 to 1885, he once again returned with his people to the United States and Canada. Arguments with the Government continued and in 1888 he resisted the proposed breakup of the Great Sioux Reservation. In 1889 he attempted, unsuccessfully, to block cession of land to the government.

In 1890, during an attempted arrest, he was killed by the Standing Rock Indian police, two weeks before the massacre at Wounded Knee Creek in South Dakota. (bio by: K M)


Birth: unknown
Death: unknown

Native American who brought the Oneida into the war against the British. Was converted to Christianity by Rev. Samuel Kirkland, and asked to be buried next to him.


Sleepy Eyes
Birth: unknown
Brown County, USA
Death: 1859
Roberts County, USA

Dakota Chief. So named because of his droopy eyelids, he was a member of the delegation of Dakota and Ojibway leaders who went to Washington DC in 1824 to meet with President James Monroe and sign treaties. He was also the most important Chief to sign the Treaty of Traverse des Sioux in 1851.

He died in 1859 or 1860 in Roberts County, South Dakota, and was buried there. In 1902 his remains were moved to Sleepy Eye and buried in a plot set aside for that purpose next to the newly built depot. The granite monument which marks his grave site was dedicated on October 17, 1902. (bio by: Mongoose)


Louis Sockalexis
Birth: Oct. 24, 1871
Old Town, Maine
Death: Dec. 24, 1913
Burlington, Maine

Professional baseball player. He played for the Cleveland Spiders. Many people believe he was the inspiration for the team's name change to the "Indians".

However, In 1915, when the current baseball franchise changed its name to the "Indians," there was no mention in the press about Louis Sockalexis nor was any notice ever sent to the Sockalexis family nor the Penobscot Nation informing them of any correlation between the naming of the team and Sockalexis.

In other words, the team was not named "in his honor"; the fact that he was Penobscot is often cited as the reason for the name of the team, but it serves as merely a convenience excuse.

Sockalexis played less than three seasons for the Cleveland team who, at the time, were called the Spiders. He played the full season in 1897, 21 games in 1898 and only 6 games in 1899.

His initial success and subsequent failure were both attributed to his race. He was repeatedly subjected to taunts, yells of derision and all that comes with it both at home games and across the country. It is believed that this contributed to his alcoholism and early death.

The present name was chosen by a group of sports writers in 1915--over 15 years after Sockalexis had left his short and unfortunate term with the team. If it were a namesake they could have called it something like the "Socks" just as the team was called the "Naps" after its owner, Napoleon Lajoie, just prior to its present name.

Beginning in 1901 the team went through several names in this order: Blues, Broncos, Naps and its present name.


Chief Sonihat
Birth: 1855
Kasaan, Prince of Wales-Outer Ketchikan Census Area, Alaska, USA
Death: 1912
Alaska, USA

He was the chief of the Haida Indians from the Queen Charlotte Islands.

After this Native American tribe had lost almost 90 percent of their population to European diseases such as small pox and measles, Christianity was forced upon them being told by Russian Orthodox and other Christian missionaries that Christianity was the only way for the the people to survive. Chief Sonihat relented and became a Christian and the remainder of the tribe followed.

What is left of the Haida Natives are located in the Tongass National Forest which is the largest national forest in the US. It was home of the Haida natives for thousands of years. The few remaining live in small costal villages and their culture is preserved at abandoned sites in the forest.

The best is located at New Kasaan where in 1933, totems and the clan house constructed by Chief Sonihat were moved and perserved. Since 1971, renewed interest in Indian tradition has sparked a steady return to the old religion praticed by the natives for thousands of years. (bio by: Donald Greyfield)


Chief Squanto
Birth: 1590
Death: Nov., 1622

Chief of the Wamponoag Indians. A friend of the New England Colonists.

In 1605 he was kidnapped and taken to England, but was returned in 1615 with Captain John Smith. In 1615 he was taken to Spain and then to England, where he learned how to speak English.

In 1619 he returned to New England and was the only survivor of the plague there. In 1620 he welcomed the landing of the Pilgrims and in 1622 he acted as a guide to Governor Bradford, but died soon after of fever


Chief Luther Standing Bear
Birth: 1868
Death: Feb. 20, 1939

Sioux Indian actor.


Spotted Tail
Birth: 1823
South Dakota, USA
Death: Aug. 5, 1881
South Dakota, USA

Native Brule Sioux Chief. His name was Sinte Gleska which means "Spotted Tail."

He was among the Sioux chiefs of the transition period. His appointment to chief was not hereditary but based on his ability and honesty. He distinguished himself in battles against the Pawnee, periodically hit wagon trains and led the battle of Julesburg on the Platte River against the whites in retaliation for the raid on Black Kettle's Camp in 1865.

When he and two other Indians were accused of murder they walked into Fort Laramie and gave themselves up. While in prison until he was released, he learned to read and write English.

In 1870 he went with Red Cloud to Washington and from then on he became a great Indian statesmen. In 1874 he was involved in the negotiation of the mineral rights of the Black Hills and in 1875 arranged a peaceful surrender for Crazy Horse who was married to his sister.

When Red Cloud had fallen out of favor he became chief of the Brule and Oglala tribes. This brought on hostile feuds among the tribes in which Spotted Tail was accused of advances toward another members wife. He was ambushed and shot returning home with his wife from delivering a load of wood.

Historians insist that he was killed as a political plot to unseat him as Brule chief. (bio by: John "J-Cat" Griffith)


Chief Taimah
Original name: Chief Tama
Birth: 1790
Death: 1830

Fox Indian Chief and friend of the early settlers in the Iowa Territory. His body is actually buried in a nearby farmer's field (east of the marker).


Birth: unknown
Death: unknown

Son of Cochise (Apache Chief).


Chief Tecumseh
Birth: Mar. 8, 1768
Death: Oct. 5, 1813

Shawnee Chief. Led confederation of Indians in league with the British, against the Americans, in the War of 1812. Was killed during the Battle of the Thames, in Upper Canada.

Legend says that Tecumseh was killed by Col. Richard Mentor Johnson of the Kentucky Mounted Rifles, and this fame helped Johnson be elected to the U.S. Vice Presidency in 1837.

Tecumseh's body was apparently buried on or near the battlefield. Legend says that it was later removed to a location, possibly in Ohio, that is a closely guarded secret among the Shawnee descendants. Other rumored locations are St. Anne's Island, in the St. Claire River at the head of Lake St. Clair, and Walpole Island, also on Lake St. Clair.


Houston Benge Teehee
Birth: Oct., 1874
Death: Nov., 1953

Registrar of the United States Treasury, during World War I. As one of the few Cherokee Indians to hold high Federal Office, aside from the U.S. Legislature, he was nationally known


Thin Elk

"My father (CWO Raymond Charles McCormick) was in the cavalry at Ft. Mead, S. D between 1922 and 1929 and left me some pictures. Both pictures are of Thin Elk and I hope his family members will like to see them for memories. My father has passed on but know he loves all the friends he made at the Pine Ridge reservation." Jo


Jim Thorpe
Original name: Jim Wa-Tho-Huk
Birth: May. 22, 1888
Death: Mar. 28, 1953

Football and baseball hero. Winner of the pentathlon and decathlon events in the 1912 Olympic Games.

Part Sac, part Fox Indian, his Indian name was Wa-Tho-Huk (Bright Path).

He was distinguished as the Sports Athlete of the Century by ABC in 2000.

Cause of death: Heart Attack


Chief Thunderwater
Original name: Oghema Niagara
Birth: 1865
Death: 1950

Oghema Niagara, Chief Thunderwater, was born to Aw Pau Chee Kaw Paw Qua Keokuk (Sac) and Jee Wan Ga (Seneca), in the hut of Two Kettles, at the Tuscarawas Village, Lewistown, New York in 1865.

1875 1884 Thunderwaters family was recruited for the nations centennial celebration. Afterward, his family stayed on and traveled the country with Buffalo Bills Wild West Show. As a result, Niagara was remembered and respected by Cody and other show members.

1884 circa 1900 Niagara returned to New York, married Euphrania, a Canadian, and had a son, Louis Keokuk Palmer. During this period he was also made a Chieftain of the Turtle Clan, Seneca, Iroquois, of the Cattaraugus Reservation, New Town, New York.

Circa 1900-1908 Niagara moved his family to Cleveland Ohio. Papers in the Western Reserve Museum in Cleveland, Ohio proclaim the following titles:
1909 - Named Ambassador and Chieftain Six Nations, Tonawanda Band, Seneca, NY.
1914 - Named Great Sachem, Advisor, Great Counsel St Regis Band (American and Canadian) given the name Tehotiokwawakon,
1917 Chieftain, Six Nations, Brantford, Canada,
1917 - Peace Chieftain, Mohawk, Iroquois, at St. Regis named- Day Ho Dew Gwah Wah Guh.
1920 - Full Powered Ambassador, Mohawk, Iroquois, Hastings, Ontario.
1927 - Agent and Attorney in Fact , Oglala Sioux, Pine Ridge, South Dakota

Oghema Niagara found his greatest joy and greatest pain by actively standing up for his principals. In a time when his people were actively being converted to Christianity, he remained true to his Monotheistic beliefs.

Oghema Niagara, Chief Thunderwater, suffered a cerebral hemorrhage and died in 1950.

The night the Chief died, the house was locked and authorities would not let the family enter. Mona broke a window to steal the photos and several personal items. The pictures are on the slide show at . The website is a tribute to Chief Thunderwater it has the information here and more.


Chief Tishomingo
Birth: 1734
Death: 1838

Chief of the Chickasaw Indians. He was the last chief of the tribe and died while the group was moving from the Mississippi Valley Region to the Indian Territory in Oklahoma. He died in 1838 or 1839.


Little Turtle
Birth: 1752
Allen County, Indiana, USA
Death: Jul. 14, 1812
Allen County, Indiana, USA

War Chief of the Miami Indians of Ohio. His indian name was "Meshikinqual."

Under his leadership two American Armies were defeated in their quest to obtain the land for white settlers. In 1790 Josiah Harman led 1400 soldiers in to the land claimed by the Miami and Shawnee Indians, they were driven out by "Little Turtle." In 1791 Arthur St. Clair led 2000 American soldiers against them and were defeated.

He realized that the Americans far outnumbered the Indians and had too many more advanced weapons for the Natives to have success on the battlefield. Other chiefs refused to listen, and they stripped Little Turtle of his leadership position.

Shortly after rejecting Little Turtle's call for peace, the chiefs and their followers lost the Battle of Fallen Timbers. Defeated, the chiefs sought peace with the Americans.

In 1795, tribes living in western Ohio sent representatives to Fort Greene Ville where they signed the Treaty of Greenville. The natives, including Little Turtle, agreed to cede all but the northwestern corner of modern-day Ohio to the Americans, although Little Turtle did refuse to sign the actual treaty.

Little Turtle refused to ever take up arms against the United States again. He became somewhat of a celebrity among the American people. He visited many cities along the East Coast and even met George Washington in 1797.

He urged his fellow natives to keep the peace and also encouraged them to forsake alcohol.

During the early 1800s, he played a key role in preventing the Miami Indians from joining Tecumseh's Indian confederation. (bio by: Beverly Collier)


Two Moon
Original name: Ishaynishus Two Moon
Birth: 1847, USA
Death: 1917, USA

Cheyenne Native American Chief. His name was Ishaynishus, which means "Two Moon". He was a participant in many battles who fought with Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull against the whites.

He was at the Rosebud fight against General Crook and was present at the Battle of Little Big Horn. His last battle was at Wolf Mountain sometimes called Battle at Pyramid Butte where his band surrendered to General Miles at Fort Keogh in April, 1877.

He was also the model used by James Fraser for the Buffalo Nickel portrait. (bio by: John "J-Cat" Griffith)


"Apache Wolf" Victorio
Birth: 1825
Truth or Consequences, Sierra County, New Mexico, USA
Death: Oct. 14, 1880, Mexico

Native American Tribal Chief. He was an Eastern Chiricahua Apache War Chief, also known as a Warm Springs or a Mimbreno Apache.

He was nicknamed the Apache Wolf. He was considered to be brave in battle and a skillful strategist in guerrilla warfare. He was one of the most fiercest of the Apache War Chiefs.

He led raiding parties along with Apache War Chiefs: Geronimo, Nana (his uncle), Chato, Mangas Coloradas, and others, killing settlers in the West Texas, Southeastern and Southwestern New Mexico, and Northern Mexican territories.

He was pursued by the United States Army Buffalo Soldiers of the 9th and 10th Calvary, Texas Rangers, and Colonel Jaoquin Terraza and his Mexican forces.

Following the death of Apache Chief Mangas Coloradas, Victorio slowly emerged as tribal leader of the Eastern Chiricahua and Mescalero Apache bands or tribes. He chose Apache War Chief Loco as his second in command.

He signed many treaties with the United States Government, but the United States Government failed to honor them. The United States Government wanted to force him to settle in Arizona, but he wanted to remain in his homeland at Ojo Caliente (Warm Springs) in Southwestern New Mexico.

On October 14, 1880 in the Tres Castillas Mountains of Mexico, Colonel Terraza and his Mexican troops surrounded and massacred Chief Victorio's camp, killing 60 warriors, 18 women and children, and taking over 60 women and children as prisoners. Apache Chief Victorio lay dead. (bio by: Bedford W. Sipes)


Chief Wapello
Birth: 1787
Death: 1842

Chief of the Sac (Sauk) and Fox Nations.

He negotiated the sale of Indian lands in Iowa to the US Government, thus opening the Iowa Territory for homesteading in 1843.


Chief War Eagle
Birth: 1785
Death: 1851

He was the last Sioux Chief to reside in the Iowa territory. He was known as "The Friend of the White Man".

His name was Huya-na which means Little Eagle. He was born in Wisconsin or possibly Minnesota and migrated west with the rest of the Santee Sioux because of White encroachment. He was always friendly to the whites, in spite of his militant name.

A tall, strong young man, he often served as a guide for steamboats on the Upper Mississippi River. During the War of 1812 when many Santee Sioux sided with the British, War Eagle served as an Army courier and interpreter for the Americans.

Later, War Eagle served as a scout and messenger for the American Fur Company. He was able to traverse long distances in a short amount of time and his skills as a diplomat and orator soon earned him election as chief of the Yankton Sioux in spite of his origin as a Santee.

War Eagle became disillusioned when he went to a Washington DC conference only to find out that the United States was taking all the Indian land east of the Mississippi. He could no longer return to his ancestral home.

Cause of death: Died of exposure after drinking too much.


Nancy Ward
Cherokee Indian Birth Name: Nanye'hi Ghi-ga-u
Birth: 1738
Death: 1822

'Beloved Woman of the Cherokee People.' Nancy Ward helped guide the Cherokee Nation through a turbulent period, balancing tribal tradition and white American influence.

Daughter of Fivekiller and Tame Doe, was born in Chota, Blount County, Tennessee, Cherokee Nation East 1738. Ghi-ga-u was a full blood Cherokee of the Wolf Clan, whose name have been Na-ni.

Nancy was born with the Indian American name Nanye'hi Ghi-ga-u. She married twice. She married Tsu-la Kingfisher. Tsu-la died 1755 in Canton, GA, age 25. Kingfisher was a full blood Cherokee of the Deer Clan (Ani-Kawi). He was killed while fighting in the Taliwa Battle led by the great war chief Oconosta. The Cherokees were determined to drive the Muskogeans 'Creeks' out of North Georgia. When he was killed, Nanye'hi seized his gun and rallied the Cherokees to victory, earning the title of "Beloved Woman".

As such, she had the right to speak in the tribe's General Council. She married a trader Bryan Ward and took the name Nancy about 1757. Bryan was born about 1720 in Amtrim County, Ireland. Bryan died August 15,1815 in Franklin County, Georgia, age 95.

She continued to serve as a tribal leader, negotiating with the recently formed United States and counseling her people against ceding their land.

Five years after her death, the Cherokees wrote a constitutional amendment barring women from voting and holding office. She ruled over the powerful Council of Women and had a voting seat in the Council of Chiefs.

She was  loved and respected by the Settlers as well as the Cherokees. She had absolute power over prisoners and on numerous occasions saved the lives of white people.

On at least two occasions during the Revolutionary War period she sent warnings to John Sevier at the Watauga Settlements of planned Indian attacks, giving them time to prepare a defense or counter-offensive.

She participated in the Treaty of July 20,1781 and the Treaty at Hopewell, November 28,1785, as a principal speaker she alluded to her  people and to hold on to as much of their land as possible.

After the Hiwassee purchase of 1819, She left Chota and settled on the Ocee River near Benton, Tennessee. She operated an Inn at WomanKiller Ford on the Federal Road until her death 1822. She is buried on a hill nearby. In 1923 a monument was placed on her grave by a Chattanooga Chapter of the Daughter of the American Revolution.

Her first husband Kingfisher, of Deer Clan, was father of her first two children Catherine and FiveKiller born 1754.
Ghi-gai-u's  second husband Bryan Ward, was father of Elizabeth Ward born 1759.

Nancys Son 'five-killer' and her brother 'LongFellow' are buried in the same grave. No one knows where Nancys daughter-Catherine is buried. (bio by: Cinnamonntoast2001)


Chief Waubonsie
Birth: 1765
Indiana, USA
Death: 1848
Iowa, USA

Potawatomi Indian Chief. For burial he was wrapped in a blanket, secured with rawhide straps and placed in a box made of hewn logs, and placed in a tree, which was the custom of his people.

Several months later, the Chief was secretly buried. (bio by: Graveaddiction)


White Man Runs Him
Original name: Mahr-Itah-Thee-Dah-Ka-Roosh White Man Runs Him
Birth: 1858, USA
Death: Jun. 2, 1929
Lodge Grass, Big Horn County, Montana, USA

United States Army Crow Indian Scout. He served as a Private and scout for General George A. Custer during the ill-fated 1876 Big Horn Campaign.

The son of Bull Chief and Offers Her Red Cloth, he enlisted on April 10, 1876 at the Crow Agency, Montana Territory, for six months in the 7th United States Infantry, but was attached to the 7th Cavalry for the expedition. He accompanied Lieutenant Charles Varnum on the trip to the Crow's Nest on June 25, and was assigned to the Custer striking column on the afternoon of June 25.

During the ensuing battle he withdrew about 3:15 pm (Custer was killed about 4:30 pm) and joined Strikes Bear on the ridge top, where he participated in the hilltop fight for a brief time. He withdrew once again and made contact with Colonel John Gibbon's Montana column, then returned to the Crow Agency.

He briefly appeared in the film "Red Raiders" in 1927, and died at age 71 on his ranch at the Crow Agency; cause of death: chronic phthisis.

His account of the battle is told in the work "The Custer Myth" by C. Graham, on pages 20 to 24. (bio by: Kit and Morgan Benson)


Chief White Pigeon
Birth: unknown
Death: 1830

Potawatomi Indian Chief. His real name was Wahbememe.

He befriended a small village of white settlers. However, the other tribes in the area were uneasy about his relationship with the white settlers. He was called to what is now known as the Detroit area for a Meeting with the Council of Chiefs.

While at this meeting, he overheard an Indian tribal chief explaining how they were going to a "white" village. They made several attempts to convince Chief White Pigeon to betray his white friends, but he had given the white settlers his word of friendship and his protection.

He is quoted as saying "to betray my village of the white people is to betray my self". He immediately left the meeting to warn his white friends, running the entire way back to the village (at least 150 miles).

His timely intervention saved the village from the pending attack, but he died of heart failure from the exhausting trip.


Wovoka Jack Wilson
Birth: 1856
Esmeralda County, Nevada, USA
Death: Oct., 1932, USA

Paiute Mystic and prophet of the "Ghost Dance" religion. Little is known of his early life, but his father died when he was 14, leaving Wovoka to be raised by David Wilson, a nearby white rancher.

Wovoka soon took the name Jack Wilson, by which he was broadly known among neighboring whites and Indians, and worked on Wilson's ranch well into adulthood. He learned to speak English and apparently had a good amount of contact with Christianity.

At around age thirty, Wovoka began to weave together various cultural strains into the Ghost Dance religion. He had a rich tradition of religious mysticism upon which to draw.

Around 1870, a Paiute named Tvibo had prophesied that while all whites would be swallowed up by the earth, all Indians, dead and living, would emerge to enjoy a world free of their conquerors. He urged his followers to dance in circles, already a tradition in the Great Basin area, while singing religious songs.

Tvibo's movement spread to parts of Nevada, California and Oregon. Whether or not Tvibo was Wovoka's father, as many believed at the time, in the late 1880's Wovoka began to make similar prophecies. His words heralded the dawning of a new age, in which whites would vanish, leaving Indians to live in a land of material abundance, spiritual renewal and immortal life.

Like many millenarian visions, Wovoka's prophecies stressed the link between righteous behavior and imminent salvation. Salvation was not to be passively awaited but welcomed by a regime of ritual dancing and upright moral conduct.

Despite the later association of the Ghost Dance with the Wounded Knee Massacre and unrest on the Lakota reservations, Wovoka charged his followers to "not hurt anybody or do harm to anyone. You must not fight. Do right always... Do not refuse to work for the whites and do not make any trouble with them."

While the Ghost Dance is sometimes seen today as an expression of Indian militancy and the desire to preserve traditional ways, Wovoka's pronouncements ironically bore the heavy mark of popular Christianity.

His invocation of a "Supreme Being," immortality, pacifism and explicit mentions of Jesus (often referred to with such phrases as "the messiah who came once to live on earth with the white man but was killed by them") all speak of an infusion of Christian beliefs into Paiute mysticism.

The Ghost Dance spread throughout much of the West, especially among the more recently defeated Indians of the Great Plains. Local bands would adopt the core of the message to their own circumstances, writing their their own songs and dancing their own dances.

In 1889 the Lakota sent a delegation to visit Wovoka. This group brought the Ghost Dance back to their reservations, where believers made sacred shirts, said to be bulletproof, especially for the Dance.

The slaughter of Big Foot's band at Wounded Knee Creek in 1890 was cruel proof that whites were not about to simply vanish, that the millennium was not at hand.

Wovoka quickly lost his notoriety and lived as Jack Wilson until sometime in 1932. He left the Ghost Dance as evidence of a growing pan-Indian identity which drew upon elements of both white and Indian traditions. (bio by: Mongoose)


Little Wolf
Birth: 1820
Montana, USA
Death: 1904
Lame Deer, Rosebud County, Montana, USA

Native American Chief of Northern Cheyenne. He was known as one of the Cheyenne Chiefs who fought for the liberty and justice of all Indians.

He led a Indian military society called the Bowstring Soldiers and was a leader in the Northern Plains wars. He with Sioux and Arapaho warriors fought together in the War for the Bozeman Trail, also known as Red Cloud's War, from 1866 to 1868.

To show good intent he was one of the chiefs who signed the Fort Laramie Treaty in 1868 to allow settlement in Indian territory. In 1875 he allied with the Sioux in their desperate defense of the Black Hills country and against confining the Indians upon reservations.

By 1876 he was a chief in the War for the Black Hills under Sitting Bull's leadership and a participant in the Battle of Little Bighorn. After the defeat of Custer at Little Big Horn, he with other Cheyenne surrendered and they were sent to a reservation in Oklahoma.

Determined to return home, in 1878 he led what was left of his people back to Montana. His band and the group led by Dull Knife split up in Nebraska, Little Wolf's band surrendered to the United States Army on March 25, 1879. They remained in Montana on the Tongue and Rosebud rivers until they were finally reunited with those of Dull Knifes group.

Then with a US Government agreement all were resettled to a established reservation at Lame Deer, Montana and there he spent the remainder of his days. (bio by: John "J-Cat" Griffith)


Chief Young Man Afraid of His Horses
Original name: Tasunka Kopipapi Young Man Afraid of His Horses
Birth: 1830, USA
Death: 1900
Pine Ridge, Shannon County, South Dakota, USA

Native American Oglala Sioux Indian Chief.




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Updated October, 2007
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