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Snow Owl – September 2004

10,000 BC – 6,000 BC
Paleo-Indians are nomadic hunter-gatherers that live in the region stretching from Texas to Arkansas.

 
 
Paleo-Indians (15,000-6,000 BC)
All plotted by their archeological remains…especially spear points. Paleo Indians are largely distinguished by their hunting and gathering economic system.

Mostly gathering early on. Not much work required of hunters and gathers, but lots of land and occasionally migration. Did they hunt to extinction the mammoth, mastadon, giant ground sloths? (12,000 on). Evidence sketchy because of the geologic changes since. Most territory now under water or alluvium. The combination of hunting and gathering…makes the Archaic designation, which really made life easier and populations larger. Women were apparently on the verge of domesticating marsh elder, aramanth and chenopod
http://www.latech.edu/tech/liberalarts/geography/courses/310/lects/paleo_indians.htm
 
6,000 BC – 2,000 BC
Meso-Indians create ornamental goods like beads and hairpins and tortoise shell rattles. Meso-Indians are nomadic hunter-gatherers that settle in more centralized regions than the Paleo-Indians. Meso-Indians are credited with building elaborate earthen mounds.
 
Meso-Indian: four points and a drill
http://www.crt.state.la.us/crt/ocd/arch/
laprehis/paleo.htm

 
 
Meso-Indians (6,000-2,000 BC)
Replaces the nomadic existence of the H/G cultures. Still hunt, but more settled and the domestication of plants begins. Use of fire explains some of the forest cover. Europeans and later tribes copied the practice. Slash and burn agriculture…are present day burnings a hold-out? Complex social structures and civilization begins. Pottery, jewelry, religious ceremonies
http://www.latech.edu/tech/liberal-arts/geography/courses/310/lects/paleo_indians.htm
 
2,000 BC – 600 BC
Neo–Indians begin to make stone and pottery vessels and various decorative and ceremonial objects. Neo-Indians, especially Poverty Point people develop extensive trade networks. Neo-Indians begin to form groups whose population expands and becomes more regionalized. Poverty Point artifacts Poverty Point people develop new methods for cooking food.
 
Early and Late Paleo-Indian Period Stone Points
http://www.crt.state.la.us/crt/ocd/arch/laprehis/paleo.htm
 
600 BC – 200 AD
Tchefuncte Indians are the first to make large amounts of clay pottery. Tchefuncte Indians rely less and less on long distance trade. Tchefuncte Indians lead a simpler life than their predecessors. Marksville Indians develop fairly elaborate burial rituals
 
 
Poverty Point
http://crt.state.la.us/crt/ocd/arch/homepage/index.htm
 
2000-200 BC
Bayou Macon in West Carroll parish. Bird effigy mound. Largest structure in the US before the 20th century. The semicircle mounds have a diameter of 3/4ths a mile…10 times larger than Stonehenge. Was the heart of a large regional culture that stretched from Missouri to Florida. Wide trading network. Poverty pointers were not farmers. But how to produce such surpluses??? No ‘set-up’ culture with a precedent of this magnitude. Manufacturing site for jewelry, beads etc. not just a trading site. Probably a diffusion of ideas, commercial, political and religious from another area, perhaps Mexico around 2000 BC. Urban hierarchy existed within the poverty point culture.
http://www.latech.edu/tech/liberalarts/geography/courses/310/lects/paleo_indians.htm
 
1 AD – 400 AD
Marksville Indian pottery designs become more ornamental. Marksville Culture is influenced by ideas and traditions of other native peoples. Marksville Indians are culturally influenced by the Hopewell Indians of Ohio and Illinois.
 
 
400 AD – 1100 AD
Troyville-Coles Creek Indians produce more durable pottery for more uses.
and west of them. Troyville-Coles Creek Indians continue to build ceremonial mounds.
Troyville-Coles Creek Indians built centralized temple buildings.
 
800 AD – 1489 AD
Caddo Indians develop a new style of pottery in varied shapes. The Mississippian Culture develops an immense trade network. Caddo Indians developed elaborate burial rituals.
 
 
1541 AD
Both Caddo and Tunica tribes have a highly developed economies.
 
 
 
CONTINUED on PG  2

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