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Snow Owl – September 2004

 
Comanche Nation Flag
 
A COMANCHE HISTORY
by Barbara Goodin


The Comanches were rulers of the Great Plains in the 1700s and became known as the Lords of the Southern Plains. Renowned for their horsemanship, they defended their land from all intruders. The introduction of the horse to Comanche people enable them to travel widely, striking terror into the hearts of their farthest enemy. It also enabled them to provide the things necessary for their families -- food, shelter and clothing.

Spaniards and Europeans were their first outside contact, but that changed by the 1830s when white men pushed westward towards a new frontier.

Comanche tribal government was a true democratic process, with organized bands, led by Band Chiefs, coming together as needed to discuss important issues. At one time there may have been as many as thirty five Bands, but during the nineteenth century there were five outstanding bands identified. They were the Penatuka, Yapaituka, Noyuka, Kwaharu and Kuutsutuka. (*See more information on Comanche Bands at bottom of page.)

From the time white men pushed westward towards a new frontier in the 1830s, many events occurred that altered the way of life for this great tribe. The Treaty of Medicine Lodge, the Battle of Adobe Walls, the Jerome Agreement and the Oklahoma land openings were but a few of these events.

The Treaty of Medicine Lodge was signed in 1867 in Kansas with the Comanche, Kiowa, Apache, Cheyenne and Arapaho. The tribes were promised protection from the hunters who were killing off the buffalo. In return they were to be provided schools, churches and annuities. The tribes, in turn, were to permit railroads to be built through their lands, cease raiding and agree to live on a reservation to be set up for them. In addition, 38.5 million acres (60,000 square miles) were given up for a reservation that contained just over three million acres (4,800 square miles). Reservation life began for the Comanches in 1869.

The Battle of Adobe Walls took place in the panhandle of Texas in 1874. Comanches, Kiowas and Cheyennes attacked the hunters who were using the abandoned fort in their quest to kill the buffalo for their hides. Although the hunters were greatly outnumbered, the Indians were defeated because of the protection offered by the fort itself and the long range buffalo rifles used by the hunters. The battle was disastrous for the Indians. By 1880 both the buffalo and a way of life for the Comanches were gone.

The Jerome Agreement of 1892 was signed at Fort Sill between the United States and the Kiowa, Comanche and Apache (KCA) Tribes. The Agreement allotted each man, woman and child 160 acres which was to be held in trust for them, free from taxation. In return the Indians gave up all their lands with the exception of four tracts which contained over a half million acres (862 square miles) and agreed to accept two million dollars for the relinquished land. Bitterness resulted in that most of the Indians did not want the Agreement at all. Indian leaders involved in the negotiations asked for $2.50 an acre, but in the end they were paid $1.25 per acre. By June 5, 1901, Indian land allotments were completed and this nomadic tribe of the Plains settled into the life of farmers/ranchers.

Exactly five years later, land-hungry "Boomers" forced the opening of the last remaining land held by the Indians, an area that had come to be known as "The Big Pasture." Before it was opened to white settlement, the children born after the allotments of 1901 were given land. The remainder was divided into tracts for the last big land opening in Oklahoma's short history.

The Comanche Tribe now numbers almost 10,000 persons, with approximately 6,000 of them residing in this area of Southwest Oklahoma. The Comanche Tribal Complex is located nine miles north of Lawton, Oklahoma, and employs about sixty persons. Many services are available through the Complex for tribal members.

The Comanche Tribe is headed by a Chairman, Vice-Chairman and Secretary-Treasurer along with four business committee members. Jointly the elected officials are known as the Comanche Business Committee, or the C.B.C. These persons are elected by tribal members, who are the supreme governing body of the Comanche Tribe. A constitution adopted in 1967 sets forth the conditions under which the tribe operates. The C.B.C meets monthly to take care of business, with tribal members present and offering input into decisions that affect all members.

The Comanche Tribe owns land jointly with the Kiowa and Apache Tribes (known as the K.C.A.), but also owns land on its own.

Comanches are the best educated of all Indian tribes with more students per capita enrolled in higher education. We have doctors, lawyers, chiefs ("chief" executive officers!), teachers, principals, superintendents, registered nurses, actors, authors, artists, craftsmen -- people in all professions -- who do an outstanding job representing themselves and the Comanche people.

The Comanches have not been "reservation" Indians since 1901. Many still live on their family's allotted land, with others living in cities all over the country and overseas. Some choose to lease their land, either to cattlemen or oil companies. A few are wealthy, most are making ends meet, some struggle through each day. Many work 9 to 5 jobs, with others owning and operating their own business.

The Comanches were once known as the Lords of the Southern Plains, and it is our vision to again be considered as such. The Comanche Tribe as a whole and the Comanche people as individuals have gone through some very difficult times, but we are survivors. We are the Numunuu.
http://www.comanchelanguage.org/history.htm

 

Quanah Parker, a Kwahadi Comanche chief; full-length, standing in front of tent
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
Image:Chief_Quanah_Parker_of_the_Kwahadi_Comanche.gif

(SEE ADDITIONAL ARTICLE ABOUT QUANAH PARKER)

 
COMANCHE BANDS:

Hanitaibo – Corn People
Kuhtsutuuka – Buffalo Eaters Band
Kwaharu – Antelope Eaters Band
Kwahihuu ki – Back Shade Comanche Band
Kwaru / Kwa?aru Nuu -- Loud Speaking People Band
Nokoni / nokoninuu – “They Travel Around”
Noyuhkanuu / Noyukanuu – Wanderers Band
Ohnonuu / Ohnononuu / Onahununuu – Comanche Clan from Cyril area
Parukaa / Padouka – name given the Comanches by the Sioux people
Pekwi Tuhka – Fish Eaters Band
Penatuka / Penanuu / Pihnaatuka / Penatuka Nuu – Honey Eaters Band, also known as Quick Striking
Pikaatamu – Buckskin Sewing Band
Saria Tuhka / Sata Teichas – Dog Eaters Band
Taninuu – Liver Eaters Band living south of the Peace River in Texas
Tutsanoo Yehku – Comanche Band
Wianu / Wianuu / Wia?nuu – Comanche Band from the Walters OK area
Yaparuhka / Yapai Nuu / Yapainuu / Yapuruhka – Root Eaters Band

Numunuu – Comanche People (plural), “crawling on belly like a snake”

Numu – Comanche Person (singular)

*from Our Comanche Dictionary, published by the Comanche Language and Cultural Preservation Committee

http://www.comanchelanguage.org/history.htm

 
THE COMANCHE TIMELINE:

1500 Comanche separate from Eastern Shoshone near Wind River
1540 Coronado Expedition into the Southern Plains
1540 Comanches known to be using dogs for transport.
1598 Spain builds colony in New Mexico and starts enslaving Indians.
1601 Don Juan de Onate encounters Plains Apache at Canadian River while looking for the Seven Cities of Gold (Cibola).
1680 Pueblo Rebellion, Comanches obtain horses.
1687 Sieur do La Sill encounters Comanche near Trinity River.
1692 Picuris relocates with Plains Apache in West Kansas.
1700 Comanches and Utes trade at Taos, New Mexico.
1706 Picuris return to the Rio Grande Valley Area.
1716 Jicarilla Apache forced into mountains of New Mexico by repeated Comanche and Ute raids.
1716 During summer Comanches and Utes trade at villages in New Mexico.
1716 Spanish attack Comanche/Ute Village north of Santa Fe; prisoners were taken and sold as slaves.
1719 First recorded Comanche raids in New Mexico for horses.
1719 Spanish send soldiers as far north as Pueblo Colorado only to find abandoned campsites.
1720 Apache bands retreat into Mexico from repeated Comanche attacks.
1720 Spanish send military expedition to investigate rumors of French trade and are destroyed by the Pawnee.
1723 War between Comanche and Utes and Plains Apache explode, two military expeditions sent to help the Apache fail to locate Comanche and Ute Tribes.
1724 Comanche fight a nine-day war at Great Mountain of Iron, it results in major defeat for the Apache.
1724 French Trader Bourgmont trades with Padoucah in Kansas.
1725 Last Apache settle on upper Arkansas River and disappeared.
1728 Plains Apache settle on Rio Grande with Pueblo Tribes.
1730 Comanches control Texas Panhandle, Central Texas, and Northeastern New Mexico.
1730 Comanche/Ute alliance collapse, 50-year war begins between Comanches and Utes.
1740 Comanche obtain firearms from French traders.
1742 Spanish send another failed expedition as far as Wichita Villages without encountering Comanches.
1743 Comanches visit San Antonio de Bexar.
1745 Comanches force Utes from the plains and Utes run and hide in the mountains.
1745 Kotsoteka Comanches cross Arkansas River and move into New Mexico.
1746 Comanche raids Pecos, New Mexico under siege, for the next 40 years, Comanches attack virtually all places in Spanish New Mexico.
1746 Major war between Comanche and the Osage and Pawnee.
1747 French barter peace between Comanche and Wichita.
1749 The French barter peace between the Comanche and Wichita, Comanche break alliance with the Utes.
1749 Utes beg Spanish for protection from Comanches.
1750 Comanches settle in the Llano Estacado or Staked Plains of Texas Panhandle.
1750 French trade for horses increase with the Comanches for Firearms.
1750 Utes make alliance with the Jicarilla against the Comanches.
1750 Comanches raid Pecos again.
1750 Wichita barters peace between the Comanche and the Osage and Pawnee.
1750 Comanches drive Apaches out of Southern plains, Jicarilla, Carlanas,
Mescaleros, Faraones, and Lipans.
1751 Comanche and Pawnee defeat the Osage.
1751 Pawnee leave the Plains and settle in the Platte Valley.
1754 Blackfeet Tribe acquires horses from Comanche.
1757 Lipan Apaches ask Spanish to build a mission on Comanche Territory to result in war between the Spanish and Comanche.
1758 Comanche and Wichita attack San Saba Presido and missions and kill all.
1759 Spanish army defeated by Comanche and Wichita at Red River.
1760 Crow tribe acquires horse from Comanche.
1760 Taos attacked by Comanches.
1761 Comanches attack Lipan mission on Nueces River.
1763 France transfers Louisiana to Spanish control.
1765 Prior to this date the Kiowa lived in the Black Hills, driven out by Lakota Sioux moving westward from Minnesota.
1768 Ute/Jicarilla alliance defeated by Comanches.
1773 Comanches raid Pecos 4th Time.
1774 Spanish soldiers, with help of Pueblo Indians, attack a Comanche village near Raton and capture over 100 Comanches Prisoners.
1775 Yamparika Comanches fighting Lakota and Cheyenne in the Black Hills.
1777 New Spain holds council of war and seeks alliance with Nations of the North,
Comanche and Wichita.
1779 Spanish send 500-man army with 200 Utes and Apache attack a large
Comanche village and kill Chief Green Horn.
1780 Due to the Kiowa being forced to move south by the Lakota, war breaks out between the Comanche and Kiowa.
1781 Smallpox decimates both Wichita and Comanche Tribes, many people die.
1785 Spanish propose treaty with Texas Comanche, signed in the fall.
1786 Kotsoteka kill Chief White Bull in New Mexico because of his stance against peace, his followers scattered.
1786 Spanish barter a peace between the Comanche and Ute tribes, and sign treaty with Comanche.
1789 Spanish and Comanche defeat Lipan Apache.
1790 Comanche and Pawnee war for 3 years, Pawnee defeated.
1791 Comanche and Osage War, Osage again defeated by Comanches.
1797 Comanches destroy entire Osage village near the Kansas Missouri border.

1803 Comanche and Pawnee war, Pawnee again defeated by Comanches.
1805 Comanches and Kiowa make peace after a Kiowa warrior lives among the Comanche for a summer.
1807 Dr. John Sibley has a meeting with Comanche Chief.
1810 Approximate time of peace with the Kiowa Apache.
1810 Hidalgo Revolt occurs.
1811 Comanche Chief El Sordo visits Bexar and is imprisoned in Coahuila.
1811 Relations between Texas and Comanches break down due to the
imprisonment of El Sordo.
1813 American traders trade with Comanches for horses.
1816 John Jamison meets with Comanche Chiefs for trade.
1821 Spanish rule replaced by Mexico.
1821 Santa Fe Trail opened.
1822 Mexico makes treaty with Texas band of Comanches.
1825 Mexico does not honor treaty with Comanche and the Rio Grande War breaks out.
1825 Comanches raid Chihuahua.
1825 United States begins construction of Ft. Gibson in Oklahoma.
1826 Mexico makes treaty with the Texas band of Comanches again.
1829 Comanches and Kiowa battle U. S. Infantry on the Santa Fe Trail.
1830 Comanches war with Cheyenne and Arapaho alliance.
1831 Mexico bans trading with Comanches.
1832 Comanches catch Pawnee horse stealing raiders and kill them all.
1832 Construction of Bent’s Fort on Arkansas River.
1833 Sam Houston barters peace with Comanche becoming friends to many.
1834 Mexico makes treaty with Texas Comanches.
1834 Mexico again dishonors peace treaty and Comanches resume raids on Mexico.
1835 Sonora, Chihuahua and Durango re-establishes bounties for Comanche
scalps.
1835 American Treaty made at Camp Holmes, with Comanche, Wichita, Osage Quapaw, Seneca, Cherokee, Choctaw, and Creek.
1836 Cynthia Ann Parker captured at Ft. Parker Texas.
1836 Texas wins independents from Mexico; Sam Houston becomes president of the Republic.
1837 Texas Cherokee Chief Diwali makes peace and trades with 16 different bands of Comanches.
1838 Texas and Comanches make peace treaty.
1839 Texas force out Cherokee, Shawnee and Delaware from Texas.
1839 Smallpox epidemic.
1840 Comanches meet Texans for council in San Antonio, 12 Comanche Chiefs are killed and 27 women and children taken prisoner.
1840 Peace is made between Cheyenne, Arapaho, and Comanches. Comanche give massive gifts of horses to their new allies.
1840 Chief Potsana Kwahip (Buffalo Hump) takes warriors against Texas on a thousand mile raid. Homes are burned. Hundreds of Texans killed.
1840 Texas with Tonkawa warriors attack Comanches at Plumb Creek.
1840 Texas Rangers formed to fight Comanches.
1841 Texas has second war with Mexico.
1843 Colonel J.C. Eldridge meets with Chief Pahayuco of the Tenawa at Pecan River, near the Red River.
1844 Sam Houston meets with Chief Tseep Tasewah along with other Indian Leaders.
1845 Quannah Parker born near Laguna Sabinas (Cedar Lake).
1845 Treaty between Republic of Texas and Texas band of Comanches is
signed.
1846 United States annexes Texas.
1846 Butler-Lewis Treaty made with Comanche, Anadarko, Caddo, Lipan,
Wichita, and Waco.
1846 Comanche delegation meet with President Polk.
1847 German Treaty signed at Fredericksburg with Comanche, this treaty is still honored.
1848 Smallpox epidemic strikes Comanche Tribe.
1848 Between 1848 and 1853, Mexico filed 366 separate claims for Comanches and Apache raids originating from North of the border.
1849 Gold seekers traveling along Canadian River bring smallpox to the
Comanches.
1851 Comanche population drops from 20,000 to 12,000 due to smallpox.
1851 Ft. Laramie Treaty with Plains Indian Tribes.
1851 Epidemic breaks out among the Comanches and Kiowa.
1852 Comanches raid Coahuila, Chihuahua, Sonora, and Durango and Tepic in Jalisco, 700 miles south of the Border.
1853 Kiowa and Yamparika sign Ft. Atkinson Treaty.
1854 Texas Congress provides 23,000 acres and establishes three reservations on the upper Brazos River for the Texas tribes, Caddo, Cherokee, Delaware, Shawnee, Wichita and Tonkawa.
1854 Penateka Tribe moves to Texas reservation.
1856 Robert E. Lee becomes in charge of Texas Indian Reservations.
1858 Due to Indian raids, the Army abandons Camp Cooper.
1858 Texas Rangers attack Comanche village at Little Robe Creek in Indian Territory.
1858 Captain Earl Van Dorn attacked a Comanche village at Rush Springs
killing 83.
1858 Van Dorn strikes the Comanches at Crooked Creek in Kansas.
1859 Settlers attack reservation in Texas and are repelled by Indians.
1859 Indians on Texas reservation forced to leave Texas.
1860 Calvary sends 3 columns on expedition battle fought with Comanches, Kiowa, Cheyenne, and Arapaho.
1860 Cynthia Ann Parker re-captured by Texas Ranger Sul Ross.
1861 Confederate signs two treaties with Comanche bands.
1861 Confederate fail to make good on treaty and Comanches push the Texas frontier back over 100 miles, forts are abandoned and raids increase.
1861 Santa Fe Trail closed down by Comanches, Kiowa, Cheyenne, and
Arapaho.
1862 Smallpox epidemic from New Mexico strike.
1862 Comanches and Pro-Union Delaware and Shawnee from Kansas attack the Tonkawa agency on revenge raid and kill 300 Tonkawa for helping the white men track and fight other Indian tribes.
1863 Full scale war in the Great Plains by an alliance for Lakota, Cheyenne, Arapaho, Kiowa, Comanche, and Kiowa-Apache.
1864 Colonel Kit Carson sent to deal with Comanches at first battle of Adobe Walls with Ute and Jicarilla scouts, Carson left after 4 days battle and never again returned to Texas to fight Comanches.
1864 Five days after Carson’s battle, Chivington’s Colorado volunteers attack a sleeping Cheyenne village on Sand Creek in southern Colorado mutilating 300 Cheyenne, mostly women and children.
1865 Council held with Confederate and Plains Tribes at Wichita River two weeks after Lee had surrendered.
1865 Little Arkansas Treaty signed with the Comanche and other Plains Tribes.
1867 Cholera epidemic strikes Comanche bands.
1867 Medicine Lodge Treaty signed by Comanche Tribes, Kwahada band refuses to sign.
1868 Comanche bands that signed treaty moved to Ft. Cobb only to leave again in summer to return home to the plains.
1868 Comanche raids target Texas and Kansas, all tribes are then ordered to Oklahoma.
1868 George Armstrong Custer and the 7th Calvary attack a southern village on the Wichita in November.
1868 Major Andrew Evans attacks a Comanche village at Soldiers Spring on Christmas Day.
1869 Comanche-Kiowa agency was relocated to Ft. Sill and the Cheyenne-Arapaho agency to Darlington.
1870 Comanche population estimated around 8,000.
1871 Kiowa raids General William Sherman’s wagon train and almost kills the Supreme Commander of the American Army.
1871 A raid by the Kwahada band of Comanches stole 70 horses from the Army at Rock Station.
1871 General Randall Mackenzie and his black buffalo soldiers fight the Kwahada band of Comanches for 2 years on the Plains.
1872 Combined Comanche and Kiowa raids in Texas kills 20 in Texas, at the same time Texans steal 1,900 horses from tribes at Ft. Sill, OK.
1872 Mackenzie attacks a Comanche village at McClellan Creek; he takes 130 women and children hostage and imprisons them at Ft. Concho. 200 more lodges are destroyed.
1873 Comanche hostages are released and forced to go to Ft. Sill, OK.
1874 Cheyenne hunters report that there are dead buffalo all over the Plains. Violence erupted at Wichita and Darlington Agencies and put down by federal troops.
1874 Large groups of Cheyenne leave the reservation to the Plains.
1874 A large Comanche-Cheyenne war party attacked 23 buffalo hunters camped in the Texas Panhandle at the site of Carson’s 1864 battle of Adobe Walls.
1874 Red River War or Buffalo War begins; this is the last Great Indian War in the Plains.
1875 General Miles attacks a group of Cheyenne near McClellan Creek.
1875 General Mackenzie attacks and burns five Comanche villages in Palo Duro Canyon and massacres women and children and destroys over 1400 Comanche horses.
1875 Winter time brings starvation to the Indians and they start to return to the reservation after relentless pursuit by Federal Troops.
1875 In April, 200 Kwahada, who had never submitted, surrendered at Ft. Sill. In June the last 400 Kwahada with Quanah Parker surrendered.
1879 The Buffalo of the Great Plains were gone, over 65 million were destroyed by white hunters. Estimation taken this year was less than 1500 buffalo left in the Great Plains.

1901 The Comanche reservation is broken up due to Government pressure to open the land for settlement.
1905 Quannah Parker rides in President Roosevelt’s Inaugural parade in Washington, D.C.
1905 President Theodore Roosevelt visits Quannah to Star House. Quannah and the President go on a wolf hunt in April.
1910 Quannah buries his mother Cynthia Ann Parker on December 4 at Post Oak Cemetery.
1911 Quannah Parker dies. Over 2000 attends his funeral.
1916 Comanche warriors volunteer for service in Europe, Code Talkers are utilized by United States forces.
1941 Comanche warriors again volunteer for service in Europe, Code Talkers use the Comanche language in D-Day Invasion and Patton’s tank battalion to secure victory for allied forces during WWII.
1989 France recognizes Comanche warriors for bravery and awards them the highest honor it can bestow for esteemed service in having saved France for German occupation.
1993 Comanche adopt official alphabet, and Numu Tekwapuha Nomneekatu is formed to preserve Comanche language and culture.
1999 Last Comanche Code Talker, Charles Chibitty, received the Knowlton Award by the United States Government for the Code Talkers help in WWII.
2000 Comanche Tribe attains a herd of buffalo from Wichita Wildlife Refuge for culture revitalization
2001 Comanche attain herd of wild mustangs from Pyramid Lake Piutes.

 
THE COMANCHE AND HIS HORSE
http://www.comanchelanguage.org/history2.htm
 
The Spanish mustang was the original Indian pony. Dubbed “mestenos” by the Spanish, stray horses came to be called mustang, the name by which they are called today. Rustled from Spanish settlements in the southwest, the pony gradually became crossed with other breeds after the annexation of the Plains by the United States in 1803. By the end of the century it bore little resemblance to the early horse.

The culture of the Plains Indians was so expanded after their introduction to the horse that they were able to resist the encroachment of the white intruders better than other Indian tribes.

Used only as a source of food at first, the Indians observed the Spanish methods of training and handling domesticated horses and so began to acquire horses as well as develop horsemanship. When riding, the American Indian was the finest of horsemen. Then enabled the skilled Comanche rider to carry out raids deep into Mexico.

1640 to 1880 has been called the period of the Indian Horse Culture. Comanches acted as brokers to the Northern tribes, providing horses already broken. The lives of the nomadic Plains tribes was revolutionized by the use of the horse.

Before the acquisition of the horse, hunting was a necessity of life for the Indian. With the Horse Culture came endurance, mobility and speed that changed hunting to a sport. A sport the Indians responded to with enthusiasm that enabled them to keep their camps supplied with food.

Following the herds of buffalo was simplified. Children and elders, who in the past slowed the tribe’s progress, were mounted or tied onto saddles. Belongings were loaded onto other horses and as many as fifty miles could be covered in a day.

The size of the horse allowed the Indian to acquire larger lodges and more possessions than was possible when dogs were used for transportation.

Parti-colored ponies created a flamboyant effect that the Indians liked. A particular type of pinto was developed by them and known as the Medicine Hat or War Bonnet because of the markings over its body. A special mystique surrounded this horse and a Comanche warrior believed himself invincible if he rode one into battle. A simple color phase of the Spanish mustang, this war-horse was desired by all Comanches, who considered them sacred and possessed them in great numbers.

The horse enabled the Indians to prevent the Spanish from colonizing the Southwest and held back white settlement for two centuries.

Comanches perfected horse stealing to an art. They were the most aggressive horse thieves in the Southern Plains. Known as the most powerful warriors, their lust for horses made life along the border perilous for all settlers. They even bragged that they only allowed the Spanish to remain in their region to raise horses for them.

All efforts to negotiate peace with the Comanches by the Spanish Government failed. The Indians’ terms were all the horses in Mexico.

Horses became a source of trade for the Comanches, who exchanged them for such items as exotic furs and white buffalo skins from the Northern tribes, to guns and powder from the first white traders and trappers that entered the region. The Spaniards refused to trade with these merchants, thereby putting the Comanche, who viewed the traders as friends, in the role of middleman. Indian camps were surrounded by horses of every shape, size and color. Their appetite for owning enough horses was never satisfied.

In 1874 thousands of animals, considered by the southern Comanche as their best horses, were slaughtered at Tule Canyon near the Texas Panhandle.

In 1876 General Sheridan sent a telegram to the War Department to request permission to sell Indian ponies that had been either captured or surrendered and the funds from the sale to be used to purchase cattle for the Indians “at the proper time.” His objective was to get the horse away from the Indians, as had been the government policy when horses were confiscated illegally from several Northern tribes to bring these tribes under control. This, along with the slaughter of the buffalo, brought the Comanche Horse Culture to a halt and ended the spectacular era of Comanche Rule over the Southern Plains.

(Source: Ryden, Hope, America’s Last Wild Horses. Lyons & Burford, Publishers, 1990) http://www.comanchelanguage.org/history2.htm

 

READ ADDITIONAL ARTICLE ABOUT THE COMANCHE AND QUANAH PARKER by Joyce Worley

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