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(Was It Necessary For Mother Earth To Lose Them, One-by-One?)
Snow Owl-August 2004


This listing is from 1880, so you must make allowances for some of the spellings of the Tribal names.  The thing is, to read this over while keeping in mind that I doubt if more than a few have heard of many of them, much less had any idea of the scope of what has disappeared over the years. 

I could, I suppose, place blame all over the place, but of what use is that? None. For this nation is not alone in what our various ancestors did.  I doubt very seriously there is a nation or country, etc., that ever existed that does not have to some degree or another, their own share of guilt stemming from eradication of another people and it goes on to this very day. 

I cannot do it, for it is simply too sad to bear; especially in light of the fact that the majority of people see or read something akin to this, then give lip service to its tragedy, shake their heads and walk away doing absolutely nothing to work toward the common goal of never letting such a crime against Creation ever happen again.

Instead, we the people, allow our leaders in our respective countries do whatever they want and only get outraged after the fact.  And of what use is that?

We gripe and moan, scream in outraged anger at the threatened existence of a fly, yet we do absolutely nothing substantial to preserve the original peoples of this Land or uplift those that remain, that we (all of us!) now call ours.  Now THATS tragic. Snow Owl

(I am not going to place any pictures in this section.  I feel that any pictures would take away from the stark reality that this listing provides in showing us what mankind has done, is doing, and apparently wishes to continue to do the world over. Snow Owl)


The Aboriginal Races of North America, By Samuel G. Drake, 1880
15th ed. rev., NY.



Abekas, probably Muskogees, under the French at Tombeckbee in 1750.

Abenakies, over Maine till 1754, then went to Canada; 200 in 1689, 150 in 1780.
Absoroka, (Minetare) S. branch Yellowstone; lat. 46, lon. 105; 45 000 in 1834.
Accokesaw, W side Colorado,  about 200 m. S.W. of Nacogdoches, in 1805.
Acomak, one of the six tribes in Virginia when settled by the English in 1607.
Adaize, 4 m. from Nachitoches, on Lake Macdon - 40 men in 1805.
Adirondaks, (Algonkin) along the N. shore St. Lawrence; 100 in 1786.
Affagoula, small clan in 1783, on Mississippi r., 8 m. above Point Coup.
Agawom, (Wampanoags,) at Sandwich, Mass.; others at Ipswich, in 1620, &c.
Ahwahaway, (Minetare,) S. W. Missouri 1820, 3 m. above Mandans; 200 in 1806.
Ajoues, S. of the Missouri, and N. of the Padoucas; 1,100 in 1760.
Alannar, (Fall,) head branches S. fork Saskashawan; 2,500 in 1804.
Algonkin, over Canada; from low down the St. Lawrence to Lake of the Woods.
Aliatan, three tribes in 1805 among the Rocky Mountains, on heads Platte.
Aliche, near Nacogdoches in 1805, then nearly extinct; spoke Caddo.
Allakaweah, (Paunch,) both sides Yellowstone, heads Big Horn r. ; 2,300 in 1805.
Allibama, (Creeks) formerly on that river, but removed to Red River in 1764.
Amalistes, (Algonkins,) once on St. Lawrence; 500 in 1760.
Anasaguntakook, (Abenaki,) on sources Androscoggin, in Maine, till 1750.
Andastes, once on S. shore Lake Erie, S.W. Senecas, who destroyed them in 1672.
Apaches, (Lapane,) between Rio den Norse and sources of Nuaces r. 3,500 in 1817.
Apalachicola, once on that r. in W. Florida; removed to Red River in 1764.
Appalousa, aboriginal in the country, of their name; but 40 men in 1805.
Aquanuschioni, the name by which the Iroquois knew themselves.
Arapahas, S. side main Canada River; 4,000 in 1836, on Kanzas River.
Armouchiquois, or Marachite, (Abenaki,) on River St. John, New Brunswick.
Arrenamuse, on St. Antonio River, near its mouth, in Texas; 120 in 1818.
Assinnaboin, (Sioux,) between Assinn, and Missourir; 1,000 on Ottawa r. in 1838.
Atenas, in a village with the Faculli in 1836 west of the Rocky Mountains.
Athapascow, about the shores of the great lake of their name.
Atnas, (Ojibewas,) next S. of the Athapascow, about lat. 57 N., in 1790.
Attacapan, in a district of their name in Louisiana; but 50 men in 1805.
Attapulgas, (Seminoles,) on Little r., a branch of Oloklikana, 1820, and 220 souls.
Attikamigues, in N. of Canada, destroyed by pestilence in 1670.
Aucosisco, (Abenaki,) between the Saco and Androscoggin River in 1630, &c.
Aughquaga, on E. branch Susquehannah River; 150 in 1768; since extinct.
Ayauais, 40 leagues up the Des Moines, S. E. side; 800 in 1805.
Ayutans, 8,000 in 1820, S. W. the Missouri, near the Rocky Mountains.

Bayogoula, W. bank Mississippi, opposite the Colipasa; important in 1699.

Bedies, on Trinity River, La., about 60 m. S. of Nacogdoches; 100 in 1805.
Big-Devils, (Yonktons,) 2,500 in 1836; about the heads of Red River.
Biloxi, at Biloxi, Gulf Mex., 1699; a few on Red r., 1804, where they, had removed.
Blackfeet, Sources Missouri; 30,000 in 1834; nearly destroyed by small-pox, 1838.
Blanche, (Bearded, or White,) upper S. branches of the Missouri to 1820.
Blue-Mud, W., and in the vicinity of the Rocky Mountains in 1820.
Brotherton, near Oneida Lake; composed of various tribes; 350 in 1836.


Caddo, on Red River in 1717, powerful; on Sodo Bay in 1800; in 1804, 100 men.
Cadodache, (Nacogdochet,) on Angelina r., 100 m. above the Nechez; 60 in 1820.
Caiwas, or Kaiwa, on main Canada River, and S. of it in 1830.
Calasthocles, N. Columbia, on the Pacific, next N. the Chillates; 200 in 1820.
Callimix, coast of the Pacific, 40 m. N. Columbia River; 1,200 in 1820.
Camanches, (Shoshone,) warlike and numerous; in interior of Texas.
Canarsee, on Long Island, N. Y., in 1610 from the W. end to Jamaica.
Cances, (Kansas,) 1805, from Bay of St. Bernard, over Grand r, toward Vera Cruz.
Canibas, (Abenaki,) numerous in 1607, and after; on both sides Kennebeck River.
Carankoua, on peninsula of Bay of St. Bernard, Louisiana; 1,500 in 1805.
Caree, on the coast between the Nuces and Riodel Norte; 2,600 in 1817.
Carriers, (Nateotetains,) a name given the natives of N. Caledonia by traders.
Castahana, between sources Padouca fork and Yellowstone; 5,000 in 1805.
Cataka, between N. and S. forks of Chien River; about 3,000 in 1804.
Catawba, till late, on their river in S. Carolina; 1,500 in 1743, and 450 in 1764.
Cathlacumups, on main shore Columbia River, S. W. Wappatoo i.; 450 in 1820.
Cathlakahikit, at the rapids of the Columbia, 160 m. up 900 in 1820.
Cathlakamaps, 80 m. up Columbia River ; about 700 in 1820.
Cathlamat, on the Pacific, 30 m. S. mouth of Columbia River; 600 in 1820.
Cathlanamenamen, on an island in mouth of Wallaumut River; 400 in 1820.
Cathlanaquiah, (Wappatoo,) S. W. side Wappatoo Island; 400 in 1820.
Cathlapootie, on Columbia Ricer, opposite the Cathlakamaps; 1,100 in 1820.
Cathlappoya, 500 in 1820, on the Wallaumut River, 60 m. from its mouth.
Cathlasko, 900 in 1820, on Columbia River, opposite the Chippanchikchiks,
Cathlathlalas, 900 in 1820, on Columbia River, opposite the Cathlakahikits.
Cathlath, 500 in 1820, oil the Wallaumut River, 60 m. from its mouth
Cattanahaw, between the Saskashawan and Missouri Rivers, in 1805.
Caughnawaga, places where Christians lived were so called.
Chactoo, on Red River; in 1805, but 100; indigenous always lived there.
Chaouanons, the French so called the Shawanese; Chowans ?)
Cheegee, (Cherokees,) 50 to 80 m. S. of them; called also Mid. Settlement, 1780.
Chehawas, small tribe oil Flint River, destroyed by Georgia militia in 1817.
Chepeyan, claim from lat. 60 to 65, Lon. 100 to 110 W.; 7,500 in 1512.
Cherokee, in Georgia, S. Carolina, &c., till 1836; then forced beyond the Mississippi.
Cheskitalowa, (Seminoles,) 580 in 1820, W. side Chattahoochee.
Chien, (Dog) near the sources Chien River; 300 in 1800 ; 200 in 1820.
Chiheeleesh, 40 m. N. of Columbia Ricer; 1,400 in 1820
Chickasaw, between heads of Mobile River in 1780; once 10,000; now in Arkansas.
Chippanchikchiks, 60 in 1820, N, side Columbia River, 220 m. from it, mouth.
Chikahomini, on Matapony River, Va., in 1661; but 3 or 4 in 1790; now extinct.
Chikamaugas, on Tennessee Ricer, 90 m. below the Cherokees, in 1790.
Chillates, 150 in 1820, oil the Pacific, N. Columbia River, beyond the Quieetsos.
Chillukittequau, On the Columbia, next below the Narrows; 1,400 in 1820.
Chiltz, N. of Columbia River, on the Pacific, next N. of the Killaxthoeles.
Chimnahpum, on Lewis River, N. W. side of the Columbia; 1800 in 1820.
Chinnook, on N. side Columbia Ricer; in 1820, about 400 in 28 lodges.
Chippewas, about Lake Superior, and other vast regions of the N., very numerous.
Chitimicha, On W, bank Miss. Ricer in 1722; once powerful, then slaves.
Choktaw, S. of the Creeks ; 15,000 in 1812;  in 1848 in Arkansas.
Chopunnish, on Kooskooskee River 4,300 in 1806, in 73 lodges.
Chowanok, (Shawanese?) in N. Carolina, oil Bennet's Creek, in 1708; 3,000 in 1630.
Chowans, E. of the Tuscaroras in N. Carolina; 60 join the Tuscaroras in 1720.
Christenaux, only another spelling of Knistenaux, which see.
Clahclellah, 700 in 1820, on the Columbia River, below the rapids.
Clakstar, W. R., on a river flowing into the Columbia at Wappatoo Island.
Clamoctomich, on the Pacific, next N, of the Chiltz ; 260 in 1820.

Clanimatas, On the S.W. side of Wappatoo Island; 200 in 1520, W. R.

Clannarminimuns, S. W. side of Wappatoo Island; 280 in 1820, W. R.
Clatsop, about 2 m. N. of the mouth of Columbia River; 1,300 in 1820.
Clarkames, on a river of their name flowing into the Wallaumut; 1800 in 1820.
Cneis, on a river flowing into Sabine Lake, 1690; the Coenis of Hennepin, probably.
Cohakies, nearly destroyed in Potiak's time; in 1800, a few near Lake Winnebago
Colapissas, on E. bank Mississippi in 1720, opposite head of Lake Pontchartrain.
Conchattas, came to Appaloosas in 1794, from E the Mississ.; in 1801, oil Sabine.
Congarees, a small tribe on Congaree River S. Carolina, in 1701; long since gone.
Conoys, perhaps Kanhawas being once on that river; (Canais, and variations.)
Cookkoo-oose,1,500 in 1806, coast of Pacific, S. of Columbia r., and S.of Killawats
Coopspellar, on a river falling into the Columbia, N. of Clark's; 1,110 in 1806.
Coosadas, (Creeks,) once resided near the River Tallapoosie.
Copper, so called from their copper ornaments, on Cappermine River, in the north.
Corees, (Tuscaroras ) on Neils River N Carolina, in 1700, and subsequently.
Coronkawa, On St. Jacintho River, between Trinity and Brazos; 350 in 1820
Cowlitsick, on Columbia, Ricer, 62 m. from its mouth in 3 villages; 2,400 in 1820.
Creeks (Muscogees ) Savannah r. to St. Augustine, thence to Flint r., 1730.
Crees, (Lynx, or Cat,) another name of the Knistenaux, or a part of them.
Crows, (Absorokas,) S, branches of the Yellowstone Ricer 45,000 in 1834.
Cutsahnim, on both sides Columbia River, above the Sokulks; 1,200 in 1820.
Dahcota, or Docata, the name by which the Sioux know themselves.
Delaware, (Lenna-lenape,) those once On Delaware River and 1750.
Dinondadies, (Hurons,) same called by the French Tionontaties
Doegs, small tribe on the Maryland side Potomac River, in 1675.
Dogribs (Blackfeet,) but speak a different language.
Dogs, the Chiens of the French. See Chien.
Dotame, 120 in 180; about the heads of Chien River, in the open country.
Eamuses. See Emusas,
Echemins, (Canoe-men,) on R. St. Johns; include Passamaquoddies and St. Johns.
Edistoes, in S. Carolina in 1670; a place still bears their name there.
 Emuas, (Seminoles,) W. side Chattahoochee, 2 m. above the Wekisas 20 in 1820.
Eneshures, at the great Narrows of the Columbia; 1,200 in 1820 in 41 lodges.
Eries, along E. side of Lake Erie, destroyed by the Iroquois about 1645.
Esaws, on River Pedee, S. Carolina, in 1820; then powerful; Catawbas, probably.
Eskeloots, about 1,000 in 1820, in 21 lodges or clans, on the Columbia.
Esquimaux, all along the northern coasts of the frozen ocean, N. of 60 N. lat.
Etohussewakkes, (Semin.,) on Chattohoochee, 3 m. above Ft. Gainer; 100 in 1820.
Facullies, 100 in 1820; on Stuart Lake, W. Rocky Mount; lat. 54, lon. 125 W.
Fall, so called from their residence at the falls of the Kooskooskee See Alansars.
Five Nations, Mohawks, Senecas, Cayugas, Onondagas and Oneidas; which see. 
Flat Heads, (Tutseewas,) on a large river W. R.; on S. fork Columbia r.
Folles Avoines, the French so called the Menominies.
Fond Du Lac, roam from Snake River to the Sandy Lakes.
Fowl-Towns, (Seminoles,) 12 m. E. Fort Scott; about 300 in 1820.
Foxes, (Ottagamies,) called Renards by the French; dispossessed by B. Hawk's war.
Ganawese, on the heads of Potomac River; same as Kanhaways, probably.
Gayhead, Martha's Vineyard; 200 in 1800; in 1820, 340.
Grand River, on Grand r., N. side L. Ontario; Mohawks, Senecas, and oth; 2,000.
Gros Ventres, W. Mississippi, on Maria River, in 1806; in 1834, 3,000.
Hare-Foot, next S. of the Esquimaux, and in perpetual war with them.
Hallibees, a tribe of Creeks, destroyed in 1813.
Hannakallal, 600 in 1820 on Pacific, S. Columbia, next beyond the Luckkarso.
Hihighenimmo, 1,300 in 1820, from mouth of Lastaw River, up it to the forks.
Hellwits, 100 in. along the Columbia, from the falls upward on the N. side.
Herring Pond, a remnant of Wampanoags, in Sandwich, Mass.; about 40.
Hietans, (Camanches,) erratic bands; from Trinity to Brazos, and Red River.
Hini, (Cadodachem) 200 in 1820, on Angelina r., between Red r. and Rio del Norte.
Hitchittees, once on Chattahoochee r.; 600 now in Arkansas; speak Muskogee.
Hohilpos, (Tushepahas,) 300 in 1820 above great falls on Clark's River.
Humas, (Oumas,) "Red nation," in Ixsussees Parish, La., in 1805 below Manchak.
Hurons, (Wyandots, Quatoghies,) adjacent, and N. gt. lakes; subd. by Iroq., 1650.
Illinois, "the lake of men," both sides Illinois r.; 12,000 in 1670; 60 towns in 1706.
Ives, or Tachies, (Texas ?) branch Sabine ; 80 men in 1806; speak Caddo.
Ioways, On Ioway River before Black Hawk's war; 1,100 beyond the Mississippi.
Iroquois, 1606, on St. Lawrence, below Quebec; 1687, both sides Ohio, to Miss.
Isatis, sometimes a name of the Sioux before 1755.
Ithkyemamits, 600 in 1820, on N. side Columbia, near the Cathlaskos.
Jelan, one of the three tribes of Camanches, on sources Brazos, Del Norte, &e.
Kadapaus, a tribe in N. Carolina in 1707.
Kahunkles, 400 in 1820, W. Rocky Mountains; abode unknown.
Kaloosas, a tribe found early in Florida long since extinct.
Kanenavish on the Padoucas' fork of the 1 latte; 400 in 1805.
Kanhawas, Ganawese or Canhaways; on the River Kanhawa, formerly.
Kansas, on the Arkansas River; about 1,000 in 1836; in 1820, 1,850.
Kaskaskias (Illin.) on a river of same name flowing into the Mississ. 250 in 1797.
Kaskayas, between sources of the Platte and Rocky Mountains; 3,000 in 1836.
Katteka, (Padoucas) not located by travellers. See Padoucas.
Keekatsa (Crows) both sides Yellowstone, above mouth Big Horn r. 3,500 in 1805.
Kayche, E. branch Trinity River in 1806; once on the Sabine; 260 in 1820.
Kiawas, on Padouca River, beyond the Kites; 1,000 in 1806.
Kigene, on the shore of Pacific Ocean in 1821, under the chief Skittegates.
Kikapoo, formerly in Illinois; now about 300, chiefly beyond the Mississippi.
Killamuk, a branch of the Clatsops, on the coast of the Pacific Ocean; about 1,000.
Killawat, in a large town on the coast of the Pacific, E. of the Luktons.
Killaxthocles, 100 in 1820 at the mouth of Columbia River, on N. side.
Kimoenims, a band of the Chopunnish on Lewis's Ricer; 800 in 1820, in 33 clans.
Kinai, about Cook's Inlet, on the coast of the Pacific Ocean.
Kites, (Staetans,) between sources Platte and Rocky Mountains; about 500 in 1820.
Kiskakons, inhabited Michilimakinak in 1680; a Huron tribe.
Knistenaux, on Assinnaboin River; 5,000 in 1812;  numerous; women comely.
Konagens, Esquimaux, inhabiting Kadjak Island, lat. 53, lon. 152 W.
Kook-koo-oose, on the coast of the Pacific, S. of the Killawats; 1 500 in 1835.
Kuskarawaoks, one of six tribes on E. shore of Chesapeak in 1607; (Tuscaroras?).
Lahanna, 2,000 in 1820, both sides Columbia, above the mouth of Clark's River.
Lapanne, See Apache.
Lartielo, 600 in 1820 at the falls of Lastaw River, below Wayton Lake.
Leaf, (Sioux,) 600 in 1820, on the Missouri, above Prairie du Chien.
Leech River, about 350 in 1820 near Sandy Lake, lat. 46 9' N.
Lenna Lenape, once from Hudson to Delaware River; now scattered in the West.
Lipan, 800 in 1816, from Rio Grande to the interior of Texas; light hair.

Loucheux, next N. of the Esquimaux, or S. of lat. 67 15' N.

Lukawis, 800 in 1820 W. of the Rocky Mountains; abode unknown.
Lukkarso, 1,200 in 1820, coast of Pacific, S. of Columbia r., beyond the Shallalah.
Luktons, 20 in 1820, W. of the Rocky Mountains; abode unknown.
Machapungas, in N. Carolina in 1700; practiced circumcision.
Mandans, 1,250 in 1805, 1200 m. fm. mouth of Misso; 1838, reduced to 21 by sm. pox
Mangoags, or Tuteloes, (Iroquois,) Nottoway River, formerly; now extinct.
Manhattans, (Mohicans) once on the island where New York city now stands.
Mannahoaks, once on the upper waters of the Rappahannock r.; extinct long ago.
Marachites, (Abenakies,) on the St. John's; a remnant remains.
Marsapeagues, once on Long Island, S. side of Oyster Bay; extinct.
Marshpees, (Wampanoags) 315 in 1832; Barnstable Co., Mass; mixed with blacks.
Mascoutins, or Fire Ind., betw. Mississ. and L. Michigan, 1665; (Sacs and Foxes?)
Massachucsetts, the state perpetuates their name.
Massawomes, (Iroquois,) once spread over Kentucky.
 Mathlanobs, 500 in 1820, on an island in the mouth of Wallaumut River, W. R.
Mayes, 600 in 1805, St. Gabriel Creek mouth of Guadaloupe River, Louisiana.
Menominies, (Algonkins,) once on Illinois r.; now 300 W. Mississippi.
Messassagnes, 2,000 in 1764, N. of, and adjacent to, L. Huron and Superior.
Miamis, (Algonkins,) once on the r. of their name; now 1,500, beyond the Mississ.
Mikasaukies, (Seminoles ) about 1 000 in 1821; very warlike.
Mikmaks, (Algonkins,) 3,000 in 1760, in Nova Scotia; the Suriquois of the French.
Miksuksealton, (Tushepaha,) 300 in 1820 Clark's River, above great falls, W. R.
Minetares, 2,500 in 1805, 5 m. above the Mandans, on bth sides Knife River.
Mindawarcarton, in 1805 on both sides Mississippi, from St. Peter's upward.

Mingoes, once such of the Iroquois were so called as resided upon the Scio River.

Minsi, Wolf tribe of the Lenna Lenape, once over New Jersey and art of Penn.
Missouries, once on that part of the River just below Grand r., to 1820.
Mitchigamies, one of the five tribes of the Illinois; location uncertain.
Mohawks, head of Five Nations; formerly on Mohawk r.; a few now in Canada.
Mohegans, or Moheakunnuks, in 1610, Hudson r. from Esopus to Albany.
Monacans, (Tuscaroras,) once near where Richmond, Virginia, now is.
Mongoulatches, on the W. side of the Mississippi. See Bayagoulas.
Montagnes, (Algonkins,) N. side St. Law., bette. Saguenay and Tadousac, in 1609.
Montauks, on E. end of Long Island, formerly; head of 13 tribes of that island.
Moratoks, 80 in 1607; 40 in 1669, in Lancaster and Richmond counties, Virginia.
Mosquitos, once a numerous race on the E. side of the Isthmus of Darien.
Mutlnomahs, (Wappatoo,) 800 in 1320, mouth of Multnomah River, W. R.
Munseys, (Delawares,) in 1730 N. branch Susquehannah r.; to the Wabash in 1808.
Muskogees, 17,000 in 1775, on Alabama and Apalachicola Rivers. See B. iv.
Nabedaches, (Caddo,) on branch Sabine, 15 m. above the Inies; 400 in 1805.
Nabijos, between N. Mexico and the Pacific; live in stone houses, and manufacture.
Nandakoe, 120 in 1805 on Sabine, 60 m. W. of the Yattassees; (Caddo.)
Nantikokes, 1711 on Nantikoke River; 1755, at Wyoming; same year went west.
Narcotah, the name by which the Sioux know themselves.
Narragansets, S. side of the bay which perpetuates their name; nearly extinct.
Nashuays, (Nipmuks,) on that river from its mouth in Massachusetts.
Natchez, at Natchez; discovered, 1701; chiefly destroyed by French, 1720.
Natchitoches, once at that place; 100 in 1804; now upon Red River.
Nateotetains, 200 in 1820, W. R., on a river of their name, W. of the Facullies.
Natiks, (Nipmuks,) in Massachusetts, in a town now called after them.
Nechacoke, (Wappatoo,) 100 in 1820 S. side Columbia, near Quicksand r., W. R.
Neekeetoo, 700 in 1820, on the Pacific, S. of the Columbia, beyond the Youicone.
Nemalquinner, (Wappatoo,) 200 in 1820, N. side Wallaumut River, 3 m, up.
Niantiks, a tribe of the Narragansets, and in alliance with them.
Nicariagas, once about Michilimakinak;  joined Iroquois in 1723, as seventh nation.
Nipissins, (Original Algonkins,) 400 in 1764, near the source of Ottoway River.
Nipmuks, eastern interior of Mass.; 1,500 in 1775; extinct.
Norridgeworks, (Abenakies,) on Penobscot River. 

Nottoways, on Nottoway River, in Virginia; but 2 of clear blood in 1817.

Nyacks, (Mohicans,) or Manhattans, once about the Narrows, in New York.



Okmulges, (Muskogees,) to the E. of Flint River; about 200 in 1834.

Ocameches, in Virginia in 1607; had before been powerful; then reduced.
Ochees, See Uchees. - Perhaps Ochesos; 230 in Florida in 1826, at Ochee Bluff.
Oconas, (Creeks.) 

Ojibwas, (Chippeways,) 30,000 in 1836 about the great lakes, and N, of them.

Okatiokinans, (Seminoles,) 580 in 1820, near Fort Gaines, E side Mississippi.

Omahas, 2,200 in 1820 on Elkhorn River, 80 m. from Council Bluffs.

Oneidas, one of the Five Nations; chief seat near Oneida Lake, New York.

Onondagas, one of the Five Nations; formerly in New York, 300 in 1840.

Ootlashoots, (Tushepahas,) 400 in 1820, on Clark's River, W. Rock Mountains.

Osages, 4,000 in 1830, about Arkansas and Usage Rivers; many tribes.

Otagamies, (Winnebagoes ) 300 in 1780, bettw. Lake of the Woods and the Mississ.

Otoes, 1,500m 1820; in 1805, 500; 15 leagues up the River Platte on S. side.

Ottawas, 1670, removed from L. Superior to Michilimakinak; 2,300 in 1820.

Ouitanons, or Waas, (Kikapoos ) mouth of Eel r., Ind., 1791, in a village 3 m, long.

Oumas, E bank Mississippi in 1722, in 2 villages, quarter of a mile from the river.

Owassissas, (Seminoles,) ) 100 in 1820, on E. waters of St. Mark's River.

Ozas, 2,000 in 1750; on Ozaw River in 1780, which flows into the Mississippi.

Ozimies, one of the six tribes on E. shore of Maryland and Virginia in 1607.



Pacanas, on Quelquichose River, La.; 30 men in 1805 ; 40 m. S. W. Natchitoches.

Padoucas, 2,000 warriors in 1724, on the Kansas; dispersed before 1805.

Padowagas, by some the Senecas were so called; uncertain.
Pailsh, 200 in 1820, on coast of the Pacific, N. Columbia r. beyond the Potoashs.

Palaches, a tribe found early in Florida but long since extinct.

Pamlico, but 15 in 1703, about Pamlico Sound, in N. Carolina; extinct.

Pancas, once on Red River, of Winnipee 1.; afterwards joined the Omahas.

Panis, (Tonicas,) 40 villages in 1750, S. br. Missouri; 70 villages on Red r., 1755.

Penneh, See Allakaweah, 2,300 in 1800, on heads Big Horn River.

Pascataways, once a considerable tribe on the Maryland side Potomac River.

Pascagoulas, 25 men in 1805, on Red r., 60 m. below Natchitoches; from Florida.

Passamaquoddie, on Schoodak r., Me., in Perry Pleasant Point, a small number.

Paunee, 10,000 in 1820, on the Platte and Kansas; Republicans, Loupes, and Picts.

Pawistucienemuck, 500 in 1820; small, brave tribe, in the prairies of Missouri.

Pawtuckets, (Nipmuks,) on Merrimac River, where Chelmsford now is; extinct.

Pecans, (Nipmuks) 10 in 1793, in Dudley Mass., on a reservation of 200 acres.

Pelloatpallah, (Chopunnish,) 1,600 in 1820, on Kooskooskee r., above forks, W. R

Penobscots, (Abenakies,) 330, on an island in Penobscot r. 12 m. above Bangor.

Pennakooks, (Nipmuks ) along Merrimac r., where is now Concord N. H., &c.

Peorias, 97 in 1820, on Current River; one of the five tribes of the Illinois.

Pequakets; (Abenakies,) on sources Saco River; destroyed by English in 1725.

Pequots, about the mouth of Connecticut River subdued in 1637.

Phillimees, (Seminoles,) on or near the Suane River, Florida, in 1817.

Piankashaws, 3,000 once, on the Wabash; in 1780, but 950; since driven west:

Piankatank, a tribe in Virginia when first settled; unlocated.

Pinneshow, (Sioux,) 150 in 1820, on the St. Peter's, 15 m. from its mouth.

Pishquitpah, 2,600 in 1815, N. side Columbia River, at Muscleshell Rapids, W. R.

Potoash, 200 in 1820, coast Pacific, N. mouth Columbia, beyond Clamoctimichs.

Pottowattomie, 1671, on Noquet i., L. Michigan; 1681, at Chicago.

Powhatans, 32 tribes spread over Virginia when first discovered by the English.

Puans, the Winnebagoes were so called by the French at one period.



Quabaogs, (Nipmuks,) at a place of the same name, now Brookfield, Mass.

Quapaw, 700 in 1820, on Arkansas r., opp. Little Rock ; reduced by sm. pox in 1720.

Quathlahpohtles, on S. W. side Columbia, above mouth Tahwahnahiook River.

Quatoghie, (Wyandots,) once S. side L. Michigan; sold their lands to Eng. in 1707.

Quesadas, See Coosadas.

Quieetsos, on the Pacific; 250 in 1820; N. Columbia r. next N. of the Quiniilts.

Quiniilts, on coast of the Pacific, N, of Columbia r.; 250 in 1820; next the Pailshs.

Quinnechart, coast Pacific next N. Calasthocles N. Columbia r.; 2,000 in 1820.

Quinnipissa, are those called Bayagoulas by the Chevalier Tonti.

Quddies, See Passamaquoddie. Coll. Mass. Hist. Soc. iii. 181.



Rapids,  See Pawistucienemuks.

Redground, (Seminoles,) 100 in 1820, on Chattahoochie r., 12 m. above Florida line.

Redknife, so called from their copper knives; roam in the region of Slave Lake.

Red-Stick, (Seminoles,) the Baton Rouge of the French.

Red-Wing, (Sioux,) on Lake Pepin, under a chief of their name; 100 in 1820.

Racaree (Paunees ) before 1805, 10 large Vill. on Missouri r.; reduced by small pox.

River, (Mohegans,) S. of the Iroquois, down the N. side of Hudson r.

Round-Heads, (Hurons,) E, side Lake Superior; 2,500 in 1764.

Ryawas, on the Padouca fork of the Missouri; 900 in 1820.



Sachdagughs, (Powhattans,) perhaps the true name of the Powhatans.

Sankhikans, the Delawares knew the Mohawks by that name.

Santees, a small tribe in N. Carolina in 1701, on a river perpetuating their name.

Saponies, (Wanamies,) Sapona River, Carolina, in 1700;  joined Tuscaroras, 1720.

Satanas, a name, it is said, given the Shawanees by the Iroquois.
Sauk or Sac, united with Fox before 1805; then on Mississ., above Illinois.
Sauteurs or Fall Indians, of the French, about the falls of St. Mary.
Savannahs, so called from the river, or the river from them; perhaps Yamasees.

Scattakooks, upper part of Troy, N. Y. ; went from New England about 1672.

Seminoles, have been established in Florida a hundred years.
Senecas, one of the Five Nations; "ranged many thousand miles" in 1700.
Sepones, in Virginia in 1775, but a remnant. See Sapones.
Serranna, (Savannahs ?) in Georgia; nearly destroyed by the Westoes about 1670.

Sewees, a small tribe in N. Carolina, mentioned by Lawson in 1710.

Shallalah, 1,200 in 1816, on the Pacific, S. Columbia r. next the Cookkoo-oosee.
Shallattoos, on Columbia River, above the Skaddals; 100 in 1820.
Shanwappone, 400 in 1820, on the heads of Cataract and Taptul Rivers.
Shawane, once over Ohio; 1672, subdued by Iroquois; 1,383 near St. Louis in 1820.

Sheastukle, 900 in 1820, on the Pacific, S. Columbia r., next beyond the Youitz.

Shinikooks, a tribe of Long Island, about what is now South Hampton.
Shoshonee, 30,000 in 1820, on plains N. Missouri; at war with the Blackfeet.
Shoto, (Wappatoo,) 460 in 1820, on Columbia River, opposite mouth of Wallaumut.
Sicaunies, 1,000 in 1820, among the spurs of the Rocky Mountains W.of the Rapids.

Sioux, discovered by French, 1660; 33,000 in 1820, St. Peter's, Mississ., and Misso.

Sisatones, upper portions of Red r., of L. Winnipec and St. Peter's, in 1820.
Sitimacha, See Chitimicha.
Sitka, on King George III. Islands, on the coast of the Pacific about lat. 57 N.
Six Nations, (Iroquois,) Mohawk, Seneca, Onondaga, Oneida, Cayuga, Shawane.

Skaddals, on Cataract River, 25 m. N. of the Big Narrows ; 200 in 1820.

Skeetsomish, 2,600 in 1820, on a ricer of their name flowing into the Lastaw.
Skilloot, on Columbia River, from Sturgeon Island upward; 2,500 in 1820.
Skennemoke, or Tuckapas, on Vermilion River, La., 6 leagues W. of N Iberia.
Smokshop, on Columbia r., at the mouth of the Labiche; 800 in 1820, in 24 clans.

Snake, See Aliatans, or Shoshonees.

Sokokie, on Saco River, Maine, until 1725, when they withdrew to Canada.
Sokulk, on the Columbia, above mouth of Lewis's River; 2,400 in 1820.
Souriquois, (Mikmaks,) once so called by the early French.
Souties, (Ottowas,) a band probably mistaken for a tribe by the French.

Soyennom, (Chopummish,) on N. side E. fork of Lewis's River; 400 in 1820, W. R.

Spokain, on sources Lewis's River, over a large tract of country, W. Rock Mts.
Squannaroo, on Cataract r., below the Skaddals; 120 in 1820; W. Rock Mts.
Staetans, on heads Chien r., with the Kanenavish; 400 in 1805; resemble Kiawas.
Stockbridge, New, (Mohegans and Iroquois,) collected in N. Y, 1786; 400 in 1820.

Stockbridge, Mass. (Mohegans ) settled there in 1734; went to Oneida in 1786.

St. John's, (Abenakies,) about 300 still remain on that river.
Susquehannok, on W. shore of Md. in 1607 ; that river perpetuates their name.
Sussees, near sources of a branch of the Saskashawan W. Rocky Mountains.
Symerons, a numerous race, on the E. side of the Isthmus of Darien.


Tacullies, "people who go upon water; " on head waters of Frazier's River, La.
Tahsagroudie, about Detroit in 1723; probably Tsonothouans.

Tahuacan, on River Brazos; 3 tribes; 180 m. up; 1,200 in 1820.

Tallahasse, (Seminoles,) 15 in 1820 between Oloklikana and Mikasaukie.

Tallewheana, (Seminoles) 210 in 1820, on E side flint River, Near the Chehaw.

Tamaronas, a tribe of the Illinois; perhaps Peorias afterwards.
Tamatles, (Seminoles,) 7 m, above the Ocheese, and numbered 220 in 1820.
Tarratines, E. of Pascataqua River; the Nipmuks so called the Abenakies.
Tattowhehallys, (Seminoles) 130 in 1820; since scattered among other towns.

Taukaways, on the sources of Trinity, Brazos, De Dios, and Colorado Rivers.

Tawakenoe, "Three Canes" W side Brazos r, 200 m. W, of Nacogdoches, 1804.
Tawaws, (Hurons,) on the Mawme in 1780, 18 m. from Lake Erie.
Telmocresse, (Seminoles) W side Chatahoochee, 15 m. above fork; 100 in 1820.
Tenisaw, once on that river which flows into Mobile Bay; went to Red r. in 1765.

Tetons, (Sioux,) "vile miscreants," on Mississ., Misso., St. Peter's; "real pirates."

Tionontaties, or Dinondadies, a tribe of Hurons or their general name.
Tockwoghs, one of the six tribes on the Chesapeak m 1607.
Tonicas, 20 warriors in 1784 on Mississippi, Opp. Point Coup; once numerous.
Tonkahans, a nation or tribe of Texans, said to be cannibals.

Tokawa, 700 in 1820, erratic, about Bay St. Bernardo .

Toteros, on the mountains N. of the Sapones, in N. Carolina in Carolina, in 1700.
Totuskeys, See Mangoaks.
Towacanno, or Towash, one of three tribes on the Brazos.
Tahuacana. Tsononthouans, Hennepin so called the Senecas; by Cox, called Sonnontovans.

Tukabatche, on Tallapoosie River 30 m. above Fort Alabama, in 1775.

Timica, (Mobilian,) on Red River, 90 m. above its mouth ; but 30 in 1820.
Tunxis, (Mohegans,) once in Farmington, Conn.; monument erected to them, 1840.

Tushepahas, and Ootlashoots, 5,600 in 1820, on Clark's and Missouri Rivers.

Tuscarora, on Neur r., N. Carolina, till 1712; a few now in Lewiston, Niagara r.

Tuteloes, See Mangoaks, or Manoags.
Tutseewa, on a river W, Rocky Mts., supposed to be a branch of the Columbia.
Twightwees, (Miamies,) in 1780, on the Great Miami ; so called by the Iroquois.


Uchee, once on Chattauchee r. 4 towns; some went to Florida, some west.
Ufallah, (Seminoles) 670 in 1820, 12 m. above Fort Gaines, on Chattahoochee r.
Ugaljachmutzi, a tribe about Prince William's Sound, N. W. coast.
Ulseah, on coast of the Pacific, S. Columbia, beyond the Neekeeto; 150 in 1820.

Unalachtog, one of the three tribes once composing the Lenna Lenape.

Unamies, the head tribe of Lena Lenape.
Unchagogs, a tribe anciently on Long Island, New York.

Upsaroka, (Minetare,) commonly called Crows.

Waakicum, 30 m. up Columbia River, opposite the Cathlamats; 400 in 1836.
Wabinga, (Iroquois) between W. branch of Delaware and Hudson r.
Waco, 800 in 1820 on Brazos River, 24 m. from its mouth.

Wahowpums, on N. branch Columbia River, From Lapage r. upwards; 700 in 1806.

Wahpatone, (Sioux,) rove in the country on N. W. side St. Peter's River.
Wahpacoota, (Sioux ?) in the country S. W. St. Peter's in 1805; never stationary.
Wamesits, (Nipmuks,) once on Merrimac Ricer, where Lowell, Mass., now is.
Wampanoag, perhaps the 3d nation in importance in N E when settled by the Eng.

Wappings, at and about Esopus in 1758; also across the Hudson to the Minsi.

Warananconguins, supposed to be the same as the Wappings.
Washaws, on Barrataira Island in 1680, considerable; 1805, at Bay St. Fosh, 5 only.
Watanon, or Weas, See Ouitinons.
Waterees, once on the river of that name in S. Carolina, but long since extinct.

Watepaneto, on the Padouca fork of the Platte, near Rocky Mts.; 900 in 1820.

Wawenoks, (Abenakies, ) once from Sagadahock to St. George River, in Maine.
Waxsaw, once in S. Carolina, 45 m. above Camden; name still continues.
Weas, or Waas, (Kikapoos) See Ouiatanons.
Wekisa, (Semin) 250 in 1820, W. side Chattahoochee, 4 m. above the Cheskitaloas.

Welch, said to be on a southern branch of the Missouri.

Westoes, in 1670, on Ashley and Edisto Rivers, in S. Carolina.

Wetepahato, with the Kiawas, in 70 lodges in 1805. Padouca fork of Platte River.

Wheelpo, On Clark's River, from the mouth of the Lastaw; 2,500 in 1820; W. R.
Whirlpools (Chikamaugas,) so called from the place of their residence.

White, W. of Mississippi River; mentioned by many travellers.

Wighcomocos, one of the six tribes in Virginia in 1607, mentioned by Smith.
Willewahs, (Chopunnish ) 500 in 1820, on Willewah r., which falls into Lewis's

Winnebago, on S. side Lake Michigan until 1832; Ottagamies, &c.

Wolf, Loups of the French; several nations had tribes so called.
Wakkon, 2 leagues from the Tuscaroras in 1701; long since extinct.
Walla Walla on Columbia r., from above Muscleshell Rapids W. Rocky Mts.
Wyandots, (Hurons,) a great seat at Sandusky in 1780; warlike.

Wycomes, on the Susquehannah in 1648, with some Oneidas, 250.

Wyniaws, a small tribe m N. Carolina in 1701.
Yamacraw, at the bluff of their name in 1732, near Savannah about 140 men.
Yamasee, S. border of S. Carolina; nearly destroyed in 1715 by English.

Yamperack, (Camanches,) 3 tribes about sources Brazos, del Norte, 1817, 30,000.

Yanktons, in the plane country adjacent to E, side of the Rocky Mountains.
Yattassee, in Louisiana, 50 m. from Natchitoches, on a creek falling into Red r.
Yazoos, formerly upon the river of their name ; extinct in 1770.

Yeahtentanee, on banks St. Joseph's r., which flows into L. Michigan, in 1760.

Yehah, above the rapids of the Columbia in 1820; 2,800, with some others.

Yeletpoo, (Chopunnish,) 250 in 1820, on Weancum r., under S. W. Mountain.
Youicone, on the Pacific, next N. of the mouth of Columbia River; 700 in 1820.
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